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Incidence of Gastroenteritis in Aliero Metropolis from(2018-2019)

Incidence of Gastroenteritis in Aliero Metropolis from(2018-2019)

Incidence of Gastroenteritis in Aliero Metropolis from(2018-2019)



INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Gastroenteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that in valued the stomach and small intestine, resulting in some combination of diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain and cramping. Although unrelated to influence, it has also been caved stomach fly or gastric flu, the major causes of this illness or disease include limited access for poor quality of water supply, poor food hygiene and poor sanitation   among other. The bacterial pathogens usually responsible indeed rotavirus in children and campylobacter or norovirus in Adult (2, 3, 4).

Transmission may accrue due to consumption of contaminated in property prepared foods or water or via close contact with individuals who are infections.

Approximately about 1.3 million children due before their 5th birthday with most of these death are preventable. In Nigeria and many developing countries, there has been little or no change in child mortality rate for over the past decades (5, 6).

Eviott (7) and Webber (8) estimated that three to five billion case of gastroenteritis occur globally an annual basic marking affecting children and those, developing world, more than 450,000 of these cases are caused by rotavirus in children less than 5 years of age. According to centre for disease control and prevent (even) (2011). In 1980 gastroenteritis from uses caused 4.6 million death in children with the majority occurring in developing world in Nigeria, significant has been made in the past two deaths towards the reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality through introduction of policies like improved immunization coverage, provision of good health facilities and increase in the number of health personnel.

Despite these efforts childhood mortality rate is still high. Record data report infant and unclear – 5 mortality rate of 88 and 14 death per 1600 live births respectively (9 – 12).


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA

Aliero local government is one of the 21 Local Government in Kebbi State Nigeria, Aliero Local Government was drive from the former Jega Local Government, Kebbi State during the administration of late General Sani Abacha regime in 1997. It consist of three district namely, Aliero, Sabiyal and Danwarai district with total number 128 settlement, the Local Government share border in the east with Tambuwal Local Government area of Sokoto State, share border with Jega Local Government, Kebbi State by the west, in the north Gwandu Local Government, with total of tens (10) political wards.

The Local Government is one of this most peaceful Local Government Area among the 21 Local Government Area in the state, the indigenous religion is Islam, Hausa Fulani are the main tribe dominate the are through there is come tribe whose come for business and other purpose are Yoruba, Igbo e.t.c, the main occupations of the Aliero Community are family and rearing of animal, those animal are cattle, goat, sheep, donkey, among others in some fishing and farming.

The common crop grown in this area are millet, guinea corn, maize, rice, groundnut and bean. During dry season majority o the people are engage in irrigation farming where they produce a large amount of onion, Patator, paper tomatoes etc.

Similarly, Aliero town, is that place with the best traditional bone cattle’s since in the eleven day to date, people or patient front in and our side, the country lack Niger, Cameroon, Ghana, Benin Republic are coming to Aliero seeking foe management fracture, dislocate and other bone disorders. 

In term o health facility the Local Government are having one General Hospital, four (4) Primary Health Centre, four (40 comprehensive health centre and twelve (12) health post which give the total of 21 health institution in the  Local Government Area.

In educational sector, the Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero (KSUSTA) is situated in Aliero.


1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Most of the communities are living in unhygienic environmental food hygiene.

The environmental sanitation is highly needed in some area in the Local Government Area.

Some of the people have the of habit of self-medication


AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 

The aim of this seminar is to highlight the incidence of Gastro enteritis in Aliero Local Government area of Kebbi State. The aim can be achieved through the following objectives

To identify pre disposing factor of the disease

To find the possible solution for the predisposal factor/f

To change the negative to positive environment hygiene, and  food hygiene

To promote both environment and food hygiene



1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


The significance of the study is to identified the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of the community toward the danger of the disease, and also to determine the contributed factors associated with the disease, moreover to highlight the possible ways in solving the particular problem  


1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 

The scope of this seminar is to find the percentage of people that were affected with gastroenteritis in Aliero metropolis from 2018-2019

Mostly data used are secondary data collected from department of primary health care, Aliero local government (disease surveillance and notification unit). 






















2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 

Large drinking water-related outbreaks in the Nordic countries in recent years (Jakopanec et al., 2008; Laine et al., 2011; Widerstrom et al., 2014) have increased awareness of risks associated with drinking water. In particular, the risk factors that may contribute to endemic gastrointestinal illness are poorly understood. This is alarming, since these cases are believed to account for the majority of all drinking water-related infections (Westrell et al., 2003; Lambertini et al., 2012). Previous studies indicate that 0e35% of all cases of endemic gastrointestinal illness may be drinking water-related (Payment et al., 1991, 1997; Hellard et al., 2001), but the cause of these infections is often unknown. Contamination of drinking water during distribution has been suggested as one pathway, and certain studies indicate that up to 37% of the total drinking water-related cases of gastrointestinal illness may originate from contamination during drinking water distribution (Nygard et al., 2004, 2007; Hunter et al., 2005; Tinker et al., 2009; Shortridge and Guikema, 2014; Murphy et al., 2015). High water pressure, together with physical integrity of the distribution system, makes it possible to deliver drinking water to consumers. Physical integrity is the barrier that prevents the water from leaking out and external contamination from entering the distribution system (NRC, 2007). Insufficient physical integrity is either due to man-made mistakes (cross-connection, etc.) or normal wear resulting in e.g. leaking joints or cracks (Kirmeyer et al., 2001). In the event of a water pressure drop, even a small crack can lead to potentially pathogen-contaminated water entering the system (Kirmeyer et al., 2001; Besner et al., 2011), as pathogens can be present in soil and water surrounding drinking water pipelines (Karim et al., 2003; Besner et al., 2008). In epidemiological studies, the loss of water pressure and inadequate physical integrity of the distribution system have been shown to result in an increased risk of gastrointestinal illness (Ercumen et al., 2014), suggesting that the pathogen contamination originates from an external source. During recent years, knowledge on potential internal sources of pathogens within the drinking water distribution system have also come to light, as studies have shown that pathogens may persist within the biofilm and may be present in quantities exceeding the infectious dose (Storey and Ashbolt, 2003). 


In Sweden, distribution systems have been identified as the source of contamination in a large proportion of drinking waterrelated outbreaks (Lindberg and Lindqvist, 2005). For endemic gastrointestinal illness related to the distribution system in Sweden, no significant increase in risk has yet been identified, although indications of an increased risk during pipe breaks have been reported (Malm et al., 2013). The purpose of the present study was to investigate these indications further. This was done by carrying out an observational study, using a study design different from that used in Malm et al.. In the present study we collected more detailed information on the incidents on the distribution network, detailed data on symptoms of gastrointestinal illness, as well as potential confounders.


Constituent

The bacterial pathogens usually responsible bacterial include retrovirus in Children and campylobacter or narovirus in Adult.

Other contributed factors are:-

Poor quality of drinking water

Poor food hygiene

Poor environmental hygiene

Poor personnel hygiene a many other

Made of transmission

Consumption of contaminated improperly prepared food

Improper water sanitation

Close contact with individuals who are infected.

Sign and Symptom

Frequent passing of water stool

Frequent vomiting

Loss of weight

Dehydration

Abdominal path

Slight fever e.t.c

Sinking of eyes

Loss of apparition


Complication

Dehydration

Emaciation

Loss of weight 

Shock

Death

Management of Gastroenteritis

In accordance to David (1994), the most important aspect of management is prevention of home, when ever if starts the experience shown that, Nigeria and other part of the world, that rehydration can be achieved at home in most patient by oral rehydration therapy (ORT) or with oral salt suger solution, iris therefore possible to rehydrate the patient fully by this method. So as soon as the diarrhea and vomiting start prepare ORT and give to the patient to replace the body fluid loose.

Prevention of Gastroenteritis

The following are prevention measure of the gastro intention.

Early detecting of the affected person and reporting 

Health educating the entire communities on the cause, predisposing factors and identifying the affected person

Ensure proper environmental hygiene 

Proper food hygiene

Provision of portable water

Proper provision of toiler facilities to every household to avoid open defecation

Ensure proper use of toilet facilities.



















3.0 METHODOLOGY

This chapter deal with the method or an instrument use to collect the data area of conducting research, this population area, sampling procedure and instrument use to for data collection reliability of the instrument use, data analysis and presentation of the data.


4.0 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULT

This chapter is dealing with the data analysis obtain from the administrated. Questioners, the analysis is base on the responses of three hundred (300) in Aliero Local Government Area questionnaire are distributed are completed.

The respondents each data analysis related responses in the table, each table has a three 3 columns. The veritable column, the frequency and parentage 

Table 1

Age

Frequency 

Percentage %


10 – 20 years 

30

10%


21 0 45 years

180

60%


45 & above

60

20%


Total 

270

90%


 

The above tale dealing with age at the respondent shows there 60% of the respondent is between the age 20 – 45 yes of are 209.45 and above and 10% 10–20 years of age.

Table 2

Score 

Frequency 

Percentage %


Male 

240

80%


Female 

60

20%


Total 

300

100%



Table 2: health with distribution of the gender in the questionnaire response. Where by 80% of the respondent are male, the remaining 20% are female.






Table 3: Marital Status

Married 

Frequency 

Percentage %


Single 

240

80%


Widows/divorce  

180

20%


Total 

300

100%


Table 3: with marital status of the respondent where by these who is married has the large percentage with 80% and single with 20% and divorce and other has 0%.

Table 4: Religious Respondent  

Religious  

Frequency 

Percentage %


Islam 

300

100%


Christian 

0

0%


Total 

300

100%


Table 4: this table is concerning the Religious of the respondent, which 100% of the respondent, because almost the population of the study area are following the Islam as religious.

Table 5: Educational Status 

Educational Status

Frequency 

Percentage %


Primary School

0

0%


Secondary School

60

20%


Tertiary Institution 

240

80%


Others

0

0%


Total 

300

100%


Table 5: the above table is dealing with education status of the respondent, 80% of the respondent area has post Secondary school Certificate, 20% of the respondent are Secondary, but primary and other are 0%

Table 6: Occupational of the respondent 

Occupational 

Frequency 

Percentage %


Farmer

60

20%


Student 

60

20%


Business 

30

10%


Civil Servant 

150

50%


Total 

300

100%


Table 6: these table is dealing with occupation of the respondent, civil servant has 50%, student and farmer has 20%, each while the Business take only 10% of the respondent.

Table 7: is the respondent aware of the gastroenteritis? 

Response 

Frequency 

Percentage %


Yes

300

100%


No

0

0%


Total 

300

100%


Table 7: the table is concerning whatever the respondent and aware of the disease or not the response of questionnaire shows the all the respondent are fully aware of the disease with 100%.

Table 8: Respondent source of information  

Source of information 

Frequency 

Percentage %


Friend 

60

20%


Family

0

0%


Health workers

210

70%


Radio

30

10%


Others 




Total 

300

100%


Table 8: the table is dealing with source of information from the respondent, 70% of the respondent source of information is from the health workers, while 20% from the friend and 10% from the radio.

Table 9: cause of the disease

Did the respondent know the cause of the disease?  

Response 

Frequency 

Percentage %


Yes

210

70%


No

90

30%


Total 

300

100%


Table 9: the cause of the disease, where by 70% of the respondent know the cause o the disease, and 30% of the respondent are not don’t know the cause of the disease.

Table 10: Information about the causes of the disease? 

Response source information  

Frequency 

Percentage %


Radio 

30

10%


Posters 

0

0%


Family 

0

0%


Friend 

90

30%


Health workers

120

60%


Total 

240

100%


Table 10: these table is talking about the source of information about the cause of the disease, 60% of the respondent are from the health workers, 30% are from the friend and 10% are from the radio.

Table 11: Deal with danger of the disease

Did the respondent know the danger of the disease

Frequency 

Percentage %


Yes

70

70%


No

30

30%


Total 

100

100%


Table 11: this table deal with danger of the disease whether the respondent know the danger of the disease or not and 70% respondent Yes and 20% response No.

Table 12: Deal with sign & symptom of the disease  

Did the respondent know the sign & symptom? 

Frequency 

Percentage %


Yeas

21

70%


No 

60

20%


Total 

280

90%



Table 12: the table about is dealing with whether the respondent know the sign and symptom of the disease where 70% of the response from the respondent is Yes and 20% are No

Table 13: This death with the where did you received medication when you have any health problem   

Where did you receive medical 

Frequency 

Percentage %


Hospital 

210

70%


Traditional health 

30

10%


Medical store 

30

10%


Concotion

30

10%


Other 




Table 13: the table about is talking about where the respondent are receiving medication when they are sick 70% from the Hospital, 10% from Traditional healler, another 10% from the patient medicine store and concoction carry the share of the 10%.


CONCLUTION

The results from this study show a significantly elevated risk of gastrointestinal illness, especially vomiting and AGI, linked to incidents in the drinking water distribution and those children in the age group 25 years are at the highest risk. These results also support the hypothesis that pathogens causing gastrointestinal illness originate from an external source, such as sewage, as an elevated risk of vomiting and AGI was associated with drinking water pipelines being on the same level as sewage pipes in pipe trenches.
























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