ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE SPECIES AFFECTIN SOME SELETED VEGETEBLES (TOMATOES AND ONIONS) GROWN IN ALIERO LOCAL GOVERNMENT

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF  ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE SPECIES AFFECTIN SOME SELETED  VEGETEBLES (TOMATOES AND ONIONS) GROWN IN ALIERO LOCAL GOVERNMENT 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

COVER PAGE……………….………………………………………………………………..i 

CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………………………….ii 

DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………………..iii 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………………iv 

TABLE OF CONTENT………………………………………………………………….……v 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………1 

1.1 HISHORY OF SIWES………………………………………………………………….....1 

1.2  AIMS OF SIWES…………………………………………………………………………2

1.3 LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS………………………………………………………....4 

1.4 LABORATORY REAGENTS…………………………………………………………….9 

1.5 HISTORY AND LOCATION OF THE HOSPITAL……………………………………10

1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE HOSPITAL……………………………………………......11 

1.7 THE LABORATORY……………………………………………………………………11

CHAPTER TWO

RECEPTION UNIT……………………………………………………………………...12

2.1 LABORATORY REQUEST FROM…………………………………………………….12 

2.2 LABORATORY PRECAUTIONS………………………………………………………12

1.2 COLLECTION OF SMAPLE…………………………………………………………13

1.2 SAMPLE PROCESSING………………………………………………………………13

2.4.1 BLOOD………………………………………………………………………………..14

2.4.2 URINE…………………………………………………………………………………15

CHAPTER THREE

CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY UNIT ……………………………………………………..16

SERUM PREGNANCY TEST ……………………………………..……………….16

CHAPTER FOUR

MICROBIOLOGY UNIT………………………………………………………………..18

STAINING TECHNIQUIT……………………………………………..……………18

CHAPTER FIVE

PARASITOLOGY UNIT ………………………………………………………………..20 

WIDAL TEST ………………………………………………………………….……...20 

URINALYISS …………………………………………………………………….....23

UNIRE MICROSCOPY……………………………………………………………...26

MALARAI PARASITE (MP) TEST………………………………………………...27

CHAPTER SIX

HAEMATOLOGY UNIT………………………………………………………………..29

6.1 PACKED CELL VOLUME (HAEMATOCRIT)………………………………………..29  

 

6.22 BLOOD GROUPING (AV B O)31

6.3 HEPATIITTIS SERUM AANTIGEN B and C…..

6..4 VENEREL 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 

Livestock plays a crucial role in the economy of an area it increasing the  economic status of the rural poor (Jone,2001)  due to improper care, unhygienic environment and close  contact  with infected animals they get infected with a variety  of parasites  

Gastro intestinal helmithes of livestock cause significant economic losses (FAO. 1992) The effect of the infection is determine by factors like susceptibility of the host species, the host parasite interaction. and the infective dose (Jenser, 1992)  which  may  reduced  growth rate, weight loss due to frequent diarrhea and it may go unnoticed leading to death (over and Janserm 1992 sykes and coop, 1976). The transmission  of most intestinal helminthes of animals depends upon ingestion of the larval stage parasites via certain food  element.  (van olm, 1992) this livestock become infected  by the consumption of grasses and water contaminated  with  infective larva and the continuation of the parasites life cycles is secured by the host disseminating pre-infective stage in to the pasture or other food items (F.A.O 1992) 

The most prevalent gastro-intestinal heiminthes in sheep and goat are Ostertegia sp, Trichostrongylus sp, Coperia sp, Oesophasostomum sp. (karki 2005) others are Fasiola sp, Tricuris sp, Haemochous sp, and Bunustmus sp., (shrestha,1994). In Africa,  gastro-interstinal helminthes are widly distributed, in Ethiopia, surveys at Addis Abada shows the result of sheep being infected in this parcentage.  Trichostromgylus colubrifroms (89%) Trihuris barbetverisis  (83%) Haemonchus Sp (67%) trichuris barberries (83%) haemonchus contortus (67%) Oesophasostomum columbianum (53%) and bunustmus trigono cephalum (34%)(bekele et al, (1982). 

In southeastern Nigeria report shows that strongyliasis, caused by haemonchus spp was the most prevalent gas rointestinay helminthes inrection, followed by coccidian infection (anene et al, 199h) while in the northeast Nigeria,  strongyliasis infection  was the  most prevalent  helminthiasis Sp (nwosuetut, 2007) 

At the department  of veterinary microbiology and parasitology university of Ibadan, Nigeria  Fagbami ogunmimade (2007)  investigated a total  of 120 gastro-intestinal track and 960 feacal sample to access the prevalence and seasonal  changes in the gastro-intestinal helminthes  of red sokoto (mardi) goats staugthered at Ibadan abbatoir  between many 1991 and April,

1992 the results shows that strongyloide, srichris, dicrocoelium and moniezia were encountered in 19% ,83%  44% 2.3% and 31% respectively host species, season. Ecological zone management system. And age of the animals influences occurrence of  infection  chine and anene, 1994) significant differences existed for season management system and ecological zone (Anika, 1994) risk of gastro-intestinal helminthes infection is greater in the wet season than dry season  and more when sheep are allow to wander about in search for food reffered to as nomadism compared 

with when sheep are adapted to a particular pasture for grating (Anika, 1994) 

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE  RESEACH  PROBLEM

The prevalence of these parasites is also  promoted whem animals feeds on pasture contaminated  with feaces containing the egg or larvae  of gastro- intestinal helminthes and contaminated water (pendy et al, 1990) 

Control of gastrointestinal heminthes is possible only after survalance has provided enough information to understand prevailing epidemiological factor influencing transmission (armour, 1980) in addition according to vanoim, and janser, (1992) a succesfull control  of intestinal heiminthes diseases is highly dependant on available information local conditions and the strength or rate at which the  parasite is been transferred (F A O 1992)

1.2 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY   

Gastro-intestinal parasite infection causes anemia, loss of weight increasing mortality increased production cost of sheep and goad (Barger 1982) and there is little available information. On the prevalence of gastro-intestinal  helminthes of sheep and goats in  Tambuwal local government of sokoto state therefore to control and prevent sheep and goats in Tambuwal metropolis  from gastro-intestinal parasite infection and to update  available data on the infection of gastro-intesinal helminthes parasitic infection, a study have to be undertake to determine the prevalence  of the parasite in sheep and goats slaughtered in abbatoirs of  Tambuwal local government area of Sokoto state Nigeria.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES 

The finding of this work may provide a base line data for further research and it will help in providing management strategy of the helminthes parasites of sheep and goat slaughtrered in Tambuwal Local Government area of sokoto state. The objective of The study are: 

To determine the species  of gastro-intestinal helminthes parasatizing sheep and goats in Tambuwal Local Government of sokoto state.  

To determine the species with the highest occurrence in sheep and goats in the study area 

To determine the area with highest occurrence of helminthes.

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 

2.1GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF HELMINTHES

 gastro intestinal helminthes are found in two phylum of the sub- kindom, 

Metazoan they are phylum platyhelminths (plant worm) and phylum as aschelminthes (Dj Richardson 2013)  the plylum platyheminths consist of the class 

Cestoda (Tape Worm)

Trematoda (Flukes)

While class Nematoda (round worm) belong to the phylum Aschelminths (Geoge poiner 2006). 

In some  classification, nematoda is regarded us a phylum (cavalier 1998) and one the most  diverse of animal phyla but discussion is in progress to  determine whether the  phylum is to be slit or not   the class cestoda (tape worm) is further classified in to five genera 

Moniezia 

Theyso nosoma

Avitelina 

Stilesia 

Anaplosephala  Dj Richardson 2013

The following species are found in this group moniezia benedeni which infest sheep, and cattle theysonosoma actinaides infest goat and sheep anoplasephala perfoliata (horse) expomsa (sheep and goat)  (dlaw et, 1998 lee et al. 1987) trematode (flukes) has two general shistosoma and orien to bilhazia Dj Richardson 2013

This are grouped further in to two  groups base on their zoonotic and non zoonotic importance (duna,1978).those of zoonatic importance shistosoma japanicum, and shistosoma matheei, and S, Mansoni which infest cattle, goat and sheep while those of non zoonotic importance are shistosoma bovis (cattle, sheep and goat). 

Shistosama indicum (Cattle, sheep and goat) s, spindale (cattle,, sheep and goat) s, nasalis (cattle, and goat) 

 Genus orientobilhazia was desciribed as occurring in cattle and sheep (Dunn, 1978). 

2.2 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SMALL RUMINANT HELMINTHES 

Epidemiology, as per definition, is the study of interrelationship of the factors that determine the frequency and distribution of a parastitic or a disease in a given animal population. Like the infectious diseases, the helminthes parasites are also influenced by the epidemiological triad, namely the availability of a susceptible host (Host) the availability of the  viable parasite (Agent) and the dissemination of the parasite to the host (Disseminator). Any disturbance between the host, the agent or the disseminator may influence the occurrence of a parasitic condition. As an example: the country is divided into climatic zones or rainfall areas, as  indicated in the figure below. Because the climate appears to be the single most important factor that can causes a disturbance in the equilibrium of the  triad. One would expect helminthes to be less numerous in the semi-arid areas, because of climatic conditions at  the same time the host density per unit area. And therefore the carrying capacity is usually low, because of the climate. The summer rainfall area generally has higher rainfall, greater carrying capacity and there are more helminthes in the animals. However, one should take into account the clinmatic preferences of the helminthes themselves. Some only preferring the winter rainfall area while others occur in one or more climatic zones………….. photo 

2.3 TRANSMISSION OF SMALL RUMINANT HELMINTHES

A cording to merial 2012,there four ways in which host animal can be infected by internal parasites 

Direct ingestion of infective larve parasite infection of the host often occurs, after ingestion of an infective free living from or incysted form, this means 

of infection is typical  of many nematodes and round worms. Such as stomach worm heamonchous contortus and ostertegia and also the liver flukes. 

Eating the intermediate host in other case sheep may ingest and intermediate host  barboring the infective stage, this is true of tape worm such monezie expansa, whose infective larval form  lives in oribatid mites. 

Parasite actively penetrating its hoost larvae of hook worm and the intestinal thread worm may infect their host by skin penetrations 

The parasite may be maternally transmitted strongyloide papillisis may cross the placenta, infecting the foetus before  birth the larvae may also pass in the colostums to the new born. 

2.4 LIFE CYCLE OF HELMINTHES

 many tape worm (cestodes) and all of the fluke (nematodes) require intermediate host and they are said to have indirect life circle (merial 2012) once an infective larval forms enters the principal host, they grow to maturity (merial 2012).

Round worm parasites with the exception of hook worm lungworm, and thread worm have similar direct life circle. (merial, 2012)

Female lay thousand of eggs, which pass out in the feaces of infected animals if the environmental  conditions of warm and moisture are favorable, eggs deposited in the feaces will developed to the first larval stage (L1) and  hatch in several hours and if temperature  is low ,the egg develop more slowly or will not survive and hatched laevae thrive on pasture, feeding mainly on bacteria (merial 2012) makes them to shed off the culticle before they  can grow or increase their size a process called moulting (merial, 2012) the first stage lava grows to the limit of its cuticle it develops a  second larger cuticle underneath the first then cast off the old one to be a second stage  larva (L2) this grows to its limits and become a third larva (L3) which is enclosed by the shed skin of the second stage larva the third stage larvae formed are infective to sheep during cool night this larvae  stay at the base of grass near the ground and when sunlight warm the pasture, the larva migrate up wet grass to settle near the top , frequently swimming in  drops of dew (merial,2012) in this position they are most likely to be eating by sheep and once inside the animal infective larvae becomes established in the appropriate side and become adult worm (merial, 2012)

2.5 PATHOLOGY OF HELMINTHES.

Diseases caused by various gastrointestinal helminthes varies considerably based on the class the species of parasite causing the diseases in sheep according to the classification in 2.1 above by (F.AO) of united nation (1992) the major classes of this parasites that coud infest sheep are class cestoda, trematoda and nematode in the class cestoda the species present are monniezia sp. Fasiola sp etc while in the class trematoda shistosoma sp. Paramphistomum sp. With orientobilhazia sp .are  present (FAO1992) in  addition class nematoda according to FAO 1992 has oesophagostomum sp. Trichostrongylus sp. And hemonchus  sp. Infesting sheep. The pathogenic effect of moniezia  species are limited and the parasite is considered to be non-pathogenic however, heavy infections in young animals may cause anorezia, weight loss  moderate anamia inflamition of the intestinal mucosa and sometime obstruction of the intestine (Aasannji & Williams, 1987) S. hepatica occurs in the bile  duct of small ruminant and its economic importance is associated with condemnation of the affected livers (Graben 1975) nigration of C.Cerebralis in the brain may cause meringoencephalitis while massive numbers of cysts of C granulosus in the lungs  may cause respiratory  problems (Aasanji and Williams, 1987). 

Paramphistomosis occurs occasionally in cattle and in sheep with significant disease mainly due to duodenitis caused by migrating immature fluke (love and Hutahinson, 2003). 

Paramphistomosiss occurs commonly  in cattle throughout the sub-tropical and wet tropical areas and although infection are conical shaped  trematode parasites Adult flukes are  found mainly in the reticulum but also in the rumen they have a fleshing pear-shaped body, 5-12 mm by 2-4mm in diameter, and are pink or light red. Juvenile fluke are small 1-2 mm long (love and Hutclinson.2003).   

Most infections of adult fluke are hamless although large numbers of fluke can cause a cronic ulcerative rumenitis with atrophy of ruminal papillae. Peak conical fluke numbers are usually seen in late summer or early winter following prolonged inundation of pasture (Roife et,al 1991) clinical paramphistomosis is usually diagnosed in cattle 4-18 months of age and is associated with invasion of the duodenum and upper jejunum by large numbers of immature  fluke counts of up to 30,00 immature paramphistoms may be  associated with diarrhoea after 8 weeks grazing in tracer calves (roife and boray 1993) juvenile fluke attached to the intestinal mucosa and being small are easy to over look at necropsy cataihal to necrotic and haemorrhagil duodemitis with little thinning may be seen in the early stages, progressing to thickening  (mucosal oedema submucosal hypertrophy) haemorrhages and inceration ( love and Hutchinson, 2003) Anemia, inpoprote inemai (manifested as sub mandibular oedema)  and emaciation of the host ensue. After juvenile fluke nigrate to the rumen the intestine repairs, leaving in thickened duodenum and jejunum as a result of diffuse  mucosal and submocosal hypertrophy and fibrosis (love and Hutchinson, 2003) oxyclozanide  present with levamisobe in nilzan, is the most effective anthelminthes for the treatment of   acute and sub acute paramphistomosis with two treatment given two days a part (Rfe and Boray 1988) and combined with fencing to restrict access to wet snail habitats however, there are currently no anthelmintics, including Nilzan, registered for specific use against stomach fluke (love and hutch,inson 2003). 

Haemonclus spp are among the most pathtogenic helminthes species of ruminants. 

Haemonchus contortus is mainly a parasite of sheep and goats (sometime cattle) and H. Place is mainly a  pan site of cattle (sametime cattle and sheep  and goats) Haemonchus are most dominant in summer rainfall area (loved and Hutchinson, 2003)   

Most infections of adult fluke are hamless although large numbers of fluke can cause a chronic ulcerative rumenitis with atrophy of ruminal papillae. Peak conical fluke numbers are  usually seem in late summer or early winter following prolonged inundation of pasture (roife et.al 1991) climical paramphistomosis is usually diagnosed in cattle 4-18 months of age and is associated  with invasion of the duodenum and upper jejunum  by large numbers of immature fluke. Counts of up to 30,000 immature paramphistomes may be associate with diarrhea  after 8 weeks grazing tracer calves (roife and boray 1993)  juvenile  fluke are attacied to the intestinal mucosa and, being small, are easy to over look at necropsy catarrhal to necrotic and haemorrgsgic duodenitis with little thickening may be  seen in the early stages, progressing  to thickening  (macosal oedema subucosal hypertroply) haemorhages and incitation ( love and Hutchinson, 2003) Anaenia lupoprote innia (manifested as submandibular oedema) and emaciation of the intestine repairs, leaving a thickened duodenum and jejunum  as a result of diffuse muosal and submocosal  hypertrophy and fibrosis (love and Hutchinson,2002) oxy do 1a nide, present with levamisaole in nilzan, is the most effective anthslminthes for the  treatment of acute and subacute paramphystomosis. With two treatment given days apart (Rolfe and Boray 1988 clud combined with fencing to restrict access to wet snail habitats however, there are currently no anthelmintics, lucluding Nilzan, registered for  specific use against stomach fluke (love and   Huteinson, 2003).

Haemon cluis spp are among the most pathogenic helminthes species of ruminants. 

Haemonchus contortus is mainly a parasite of sheep and goats  ( sometime cattle) and H. Place is mainly a parasite of  (cattle sometime cattle and sheep and goats haemonchus are most dominant in summer rainfall area ( love and Hutchinson, 2003)  female worms are 18-30 mm long and are easily recognized by the barbers pole appearance of the white ovaries and uteri twisting for the length of the worn around a red blood –filled intestine males are 10-20 mm long and uniformly reddish-brown both  the developing the larval stages (L 45) and adults cause punctiform hemorrhages at sites of feeding on the abomasalmecosa which may be oedematous. The ingesta may be reddish broun and fluid worms may be attached to the mocosa and free in the lumen clinical signs inludes anaenia and hypoproteinsmia (manifested as submandibular oedema). In south Africa, the famacha system of  standard  cobour charts is used for assessinal scoring the level of  anemia by comparison of the colour of the inner lower eyelid and is used for tactical treatment of heavily infected sheep in  hevy and rapid infections, even animals in fat condition may die relatively qinckly  scouring is not feature in sheep and goats unless the parasite infection is mixed and includes  scour worms notably stertagia and trichostrongylus spp (love and Hutclin sin 2003)

Ostertagla spp in small ruminants and cattle tend to be more important in winter and non- seasonal rainfall areas. Heavy infections can cause profuse scoring thirift and possibly deaths. Ostertagi is considered to be the most pathogenic cattle nematode southem Australia and other temperate cattle raising regions in the world the free living stages of ostertagia  Spp. Can develop at lower temperatures than most other trichiostrongulid species. Ostertagia are small, brown hair like worms. Adult females are 8-12 mm long and males are 7 -9 mm long type 10  ostertagia infections composed almost entirely of adult worms resulting from the majority of ingested larvae developing normally to adults in 18-20 days (Hultehin son and love,2003) white, raised umblicated nodles oceour mainly in the fundic mocosa as the lavae develop and emerge from gastric glands hyperplasia of gastric epithelium may cause enlargement and coalescing  of nodoles,  the mocosa classically referred to as having a morocco leather, appearance  mocosal congestion and oedema is also evident, with thickening of Abomasal folds. In Australia, type I infections occur mainly in dairy calves 3-10 months of age and  weaned beef calves 6-12 month include inappetence, profuse watery diarrhea (scours) and rapid weight loss. Pre-type ii infections consist of large numbers of  inhibited (hypobioti) early L45 in the  gastric glands with minimal tissue reaction and clinical signs apart possibly form ill thrift this form occurs meanly in beef cattle during spring and summer with inhibited larvae resuming development 4-6 months later in late  summer early autum (Auchin and love 2003).  The type ii infection consist of adult worms araising from simultaneous maturation  of many  inhibited early L 45, with glaudular hyperplasia loss of  gastric structure  abomasitis impairment of protem digestion and leakage of plasma pratein especially albunin in to the gut lumen the mocosa appears thickened edematous. Out break of type II ostertagiosis with diarrhea and rapid weight loss many be seen in 18 month old beef cattle in autumn and in heifers and cows soon after calving however the incidence of type 11 and other form of clinical ostertagiosis has tended to decrease with the induction of anthelminthes with greater efficacy against inhibited and other stages of parasite worms these drenches include the third generation benzimidazole carbonates fenbenduzole oxfendazole albendazole etc but more particularly the macrouyclic lactones ivermectin abumectin moxidectin doramectin eprinomectin which tend to have consistently high afficacy  especially with respect to against inhibited stages as well as persistent activity against  lncoming ingested  L3s (Hutchinson and love,2003) trichostrongylus axei occurs commouly in ruminants often  association with ostertagia and also in other host species such as horses  but appears to be relatively non pathogenic adult  t.axei are very small slender hair like and reddish brown females are 5-8 mm and males 4-7mm long in heavy infection aggregations of worms occurs mainly in the fundus with localized hyperemia progressing to cafarrhal inflammation with white raised circular qlagues heavy burdens (40-70’000 or more worms) may exacerbate ostertagia associated gastritis and accompanying clinical signs the seasonal pattern of larval availability is similar to that for ostertagia (love and hutahinson 2003) trichostrongylus colubriform and T. vitrinus occur commonly in sheep in Australia the former tending to more important in sammer rainfall areas and the latter in winter rainfall area commonly  they occur in mixed infection with ostertagia produces similar clinical sign (inppetence, weight loss and scairing). (T. axei may  also be found in the intestines of sheep and cattle) sub optimal nutrition exacerbates pathogemcity. intake of trichostrongylus larve is believed to be the primary agent responsible for hypersensitivity scoring in sheep in the winter dominant rainfall areas of Victoria south Austria and south western westernaustalia lntestinal trichostrongylus spp are small hair like reddish brown worms (females 6-8 mm and males 6-7mm long) not readily seen at necropsy (love and hutinson 2003).

Trichostrongylus Colubriformis and T. Longispicularis are recorded in Australia cattle small numbers are relatively harmless to young cattle and are usually mixed with larger numbers of cooperica spp. Nematodirus spathiger is a very commom parasite of young Australia sheep, and usually relatively non-pathogeric unlike the situation in new Zealand where this parasite inexplicable become more important from the 1960s. heavy infections, scouring and thrift with mortalities can be seen in young sheep under or soon after drought conditions in Australia (South western NSW, for example) presumably become Nematodirus egg are relatively desiccation tolerant. Clinical nematodirosis is also not uncommon in young lambs in irrigation areas such as the Riverina are of souththern new south wales (Love and Hutchinson, 2003). Nematodirus is whitish, relatively long (Females 18 – 12 mm, Males 10 – 17 mm long) compared to other trichostrongyle nematodes, with the anterior portion thinner than the posterior and (hence thin – necked intestinal wom). Nematodirus helvetianus occurs commonly but in small numbers in dairy calves, usually mixed with much larger numbers of cooperia. Alone they appear to be of little significance although in the United States they have been regarded as an important parasite (Love and Hutchinson, 2003). 

2.6 DIGNOSIS OF GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTHES OF SHEEP

To diagnose gastro-intestinal helminthes parasites of ruminant the parasite or their eggs/larvae must be recovered from the digestive tract of the animal or from foecal material (Longen and Brain, 1994). These are subsequently identified and qualified. The following diagnostic techniques are within the reach of most laboratory to identify and quantify parasite infections from the examination of faecal material (Jougen and Brain, 1994). These diagnostic methods are described by Jorgen and Brain (1994). 

2.7 SIMPLE TEST TUBE FLOTATION

The simple test tube flotation method is a qualitative test for the detection of nematode and cestode eggs, ova and cyst in the faeces. It is based on the separating of eggs from faecal material and concentrating them by means of a flotation fluid with an appropriate specific gravity. This is a good technique to use in initial surveys to establish which groups of parasites are present. (Principles and practices of animal health and hygiene JAGDISH PRASAD) 

PPROCEDURE

Put approximately 3g of faecal (weigh or measure with a precalibrated teaspoon) into container 1.

Pour 50ml flotation fluid into container 1. (Preparation of flotation fluid is described in appendix (ii).

Mix (stir) faeces and flotation thoroughly with a stirring device (tongue blade, fork).

Pour the resulting faecal suspension though a tea strainer or a double – layer of cheese cloth into container 2.

Pour the faecal suspension into a test tube from container 2.

Place the test tube in a test tube rack or stand 

Gently top up the test tube with the suspension, leaving a convex meniscus at the top of the tube and carefully place a cover slip ontop of the test tube.

Let the test tube stand for 20 minutes.

Carefully lift off the cover slip from the tube, together with the drop of fluid adhering to it and immediately place the cover slip on a microscope slide.   

    

2.8 SEDIMANTATION METHORD 

The sedimentation technique is a qualitative method for detecting trematode eggs (parumphistomum) in the feaces. Must trematode eggs are relatively large and heavy compared to nematode eggs this technique concentrated them in a sediment .this is a procedure to assess the presence of trematode infections. It is generally run only when such infection are suspected from previous post mortem findings on other animals in the head (flock area) and is nut run routinely. The procedure can be used to detect liver fluke (fasciola) and parumphistomum eggs. (Principles and practices of animal health and hygiene JAGDISH PRASAD)

PROCEDURE 

Weigh or measure appromately 3g of feaces in to containers

Pour 40-50 ml of tap water in to container 1.

Mix (stir) thoroughly with a stirring device (fork, tongue blade).

Filter the fiscal suspension through a tea strainer are double lager of cheesecloth in to container

Pour the filtered material into a test tube.

Allow to sediment for 5 minutes.

Remove (pipette, decant) the supernatant very carefully .

 Re suspend the sediment in 5 ml of water.

Allow to sediment for 5 minutes.

Discard (pipette, decant) the supernatant very carefully.

Stain the sediment by adding one drop of me thy leneblue.

Transpire the sediment to a micro slide, cover with a cover slip micro scopical examination of prepared samples on micro slider from the samples test tube flotation method, the sample flotation method and the sedimentation method are delaminated under a micro scope as the maquifications in table (21) 2.1.

2.8 POST MORTEM EXAMINATION OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

This method is use to diagnose aduld gastrointestinal parasite. The intestinal tract are collected in the abattoir and are open up or dissected to retrieve adult parasite.


CONTROL OF HELMINTHS 

In the past sheep producer relied heavily on anti –parasitic drug called an thelmintics” to control internal parasite in their flocks. But the long time use and in some cases miss use of the drug as resulted in the parasites that have become increasingly resistance to antherminthes (susan,204). Drug resistance has being documented in all three during families and is must commonly reported with ivermectin and benzimidazoles (susan, 2011). 

GOOD MANAGEMENT: intestinal parasite control start with good management. Sheep should not be feed on the ground, feeders which cannot easily be contaminated with feaces should be utilized for grain, hay, and minerals (susan, 20011). Water should be clean and free from faeca mater. pasture and pens should nut be over stock. When new sheep are acquired they should be isolated from the rest of the flocks for 30 days and aggressively dowered to prevent the introduction of during resistance worms (susan,2011).

USE OF CLEAN AND SAFE PASTURES: clean safe pasture are pasture which are nut contaminated with armor larvae that affect sheep. Example of safe pasture are pasture which as nut been grazed by sheep or goats for the past six to twelve mount, pasture fields which have been rotated with field croup’s and pastures that have been recently established or renovated by tillage. While burning a pasture will remove worm larvae, there are no pasture treatment that will effectively eliminated or reduced worm larvae. (susan, 2011).

NUTRITIONNAL MANAGEMENT : supplement feeding should nut be over look as means to control parasite, sheep and lands on the highs plane of nutrition mount to better nominate response to intestinal helminthes parasite than animal  whose notational status is compromised. Animal on low protein diet are more susceptible to infect because they produce less LG A (immune globulin).higher levels of protein as been shown to improve the pregnant ewes immune response to parasite after lambing .lambs receiving protein supplement reduce feacal egg counts.(susan,2011).

According to D. van meter, D A C V I M/ Colorado state university extension special list (veterinarian) and associated prophesier, college of veterinary medicine and biomedical sciences, chemical slyness (5/2010).the following steps could also be followed to control gastro intestinal helminthes infection.

Don’t feed hay or grain on the ground: instead feed from racks or feeders and keep these clean the goal is to limit fecal contamination of feed gouts have a tendency to want to covered or modified to prevent hem from stepping in or defecating  in to the feed. Rake up spilled feed and dis card, compost or fed to horses, pigs, or pointy similarly, clean water thoughts and borrow regularly to limit transmission of parasites through fecal contaminated water. 

 Avoidance of pasture: if your animal are allowed to graze pasture, move the animals to new pasture (or use an electric fence to section the pasture)every seven to days, particularly during the height of the growing sponsor where warmer temperatures and moisture is maintained. Once a pasture has been grazed, now it short (2 inchers or less)and remove the clipped forage. Exposure to sunlight for three to four weeks will kill many of the remaining parasite larvae, making the pasture safer for sheep and goats to return to graze. Alternatively, you can move horses or foul try on fo the pasture when these other animals logiest parasite larvae from sheep and gouts, the larvae are not able to nature and will die with out causing hams to the “new” animal that legists them. The sheep and goats can be returned to this pasture in abound for (24) to six weeks, provided that the al ternate animals have disrupted the fecal pellets left by the sheep and goats (poultry) or grazed the grass down extensively (horses). Goats do very well if allowed to” brow se” that is eat the leavers and stems of shrubs and tall weeds at shoulder height to the goat, the parasites shed in feces will not contaminate the plants at this height off of the ground because the eggs and larvae will be on the ground or on short plant s nearer the ground level.

Avoid overcrowding: because must gusto or intestinal helminthes are transmitted directly from over stocking, or simple having to many animals on a given section of land. overcrowding contributes to added stress on the animal sucall confined areas, this is particularly true when sheep and goats are grazing small pastures.

Avoid malnutrition: sheep and goats are far more capable of coping with gastro intestinal parasites if their nutritional needs are hate. Feeding adequate amounts of protein to these animal is particularly important, your veterinarian can help your to design a nit rational program that best fits your animals needs. Combining the judicious use of an thelmiutis, adequate nutrition, and good flock/herd management hill greatly diminish the negative effects of gastro intestinal parasites hi your sheep and goats.                      

        

 

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIAL AND METHOD

3.0 STUDY AREA

The study was carried out at the Tambuwal local government area of Sokoto state, Nigeria 

Tambuwal L.G.A is one of the Local Government Area in Sokoto State Nigeria on the Al highway at 120 24 00N,12.4000’’N, 40.4000E /12.40000N 4.666670E. it has a total of 1,717km2 (663sqmi) with a population of 224,93 in (2006 census) (Wikipedia) Tambuwal local government area is bounded to the North by Yabo and shagari L.G.A to the east by shagari L.G.A to the south by Kebbe L.G.A and Zamfara State, and to the west by Kebbe State Nigeria (Wikepedia)

The topography of Tambuwal town  is flat  and slightly undulating with compact stony and brown soil and  has a northen guinea savannah vegetation, the chimate of Tambuwal L.G.A is typically trophical types  characterized with two season wet and dry (Taiwo and Ayanwale) 2005) the wet season start from June to October with presipitation ranging from 10mm in June to 310mm in August and 13mm in October  with a characteristic intensive local thunder storm the temperature varies between 2o c to 35oc mean annual temperature for  the coldest and the hottest  season but open (off shade)  temperature get up to 40 c to 45c on  every hot days (Taiwo and Ayanwale, 2005) the above climatic condition support fast run off and erosion in the  rain, while dust and wind, soil erosion is usually during the dry season also inclusive is the harmatern period ( November to January) which is characterized by heavy dust and fog as well as extreme cold, however march and April are   usually the hottest month in the years ( chemizi and mfong 2008) 

The inbabitant of Tambuwal LGA are gererally Torankawa, with  emphasis  on vegetation especially  in ground nut, onion, papper, millet. They also practice live stock faming, rearing animals like cow, donkey, goad, camel, and sheep (Abubakar, 11992).

3.1 SAMPLE COLLECTION 

Feacal sample and visible parasites from the gastro-intesti nal tract were colleted in various abbatior in  Tambuwal LGA in to a clean specimen bottle containing 5% formalin 

Tambuwal Local Government area has five District which  is Tambuwal  District, Gindi District, Dogondaji district, Jabo district, Sanyinna District. The sample are collected in every district after slaughtering of sheep and goats, the gasromestinal tract is removed and sample are immediately  collected from part of the feaces of the animal with adult or visible parasites for   examination in the school laboratory. 25 gastro intestinal fluid or feacal samples were examined in each District making a total of 125 sample all together

  3.2   SAMPLE COLLECTION 

Feacal sample were collected at the rectum of the Animal by using hand gloves before slaughter.

The sample were collected Ramdomly collected at abattoirs in five Districts of the L.G.A.

These are Tambuwal District, Gindi District Dogon daji District, Jabo District, Sanyinna district. 25 feacal samples were collected in every district, making a Total of 125 sample All together.

The faecal sample were collected in a clean sample bottles containers by securing the animal in chute and restrain it to keep under control, and them wash the hand with soap and water, put on thin hand gloves of polythene on left hand, and them introduce the index finger in the rectum, or wet cotton swap to collect the faecal sample.

The sample are them tranportated to Biology Lab of the KSUSTA for processing.

PARASITOLOGICAL ANALYSIS (Microscopic examination of the samples)

Parasitological Analysis 

Direct smear method 

Take 1 to 2g feacal sample and emulsify in 20ml saline solution by mixing uniformly with glass rod in a beaker of 50ml capacity 

Take a clean glass slide and place a drop of faecal emulsion in the center and cover with cover slip 

Take another glass slide and place a drop of lugois lodine  solution 1 to 2 drop of feacal suspension and mix properly  then cover with cover slip. 

Observe and microscope first in  low power and then after locating object and high power. 

IDENTIFICATION parasites recovered were identified using identification keys, provide by (soul by 1982)

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. The data obtain was analyses using simple descriplive statics and ch-square (X2) test was use to determine the significant deference in prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes among the study district.      

  

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result 

A total member of one hundred and tuenty five sample were collected and 4(4%) were positive for gastro intestinal helminthes the samples were collected districally with twenty five 25 sample from each district

Table 1 shows twenty five samples collected in each district, in which one (1) was recorded positive in Tambuwal  district which is 4% of the samples collected from the district, three positive  in Gindi District which is 12% of sample collected in the district with Dogandaji district,  Jabo and Sanyimma district having Zero positivity 0% of the samples respectively. Gindi District having the highest prevalence of 4% followed by Tambuwal District with 1% while Dogndaji District. Jabo and sanyinna has the lowest prevalence of  gastrointestinal helminthes. three method used are represented  in table 2) showing the method which is most productive in this study and number of sheep with GIH infection in addition to the District the  highest  occorance. method applied  are sedimentation method, simple testube  method and direct simear method with the sedimentation simple testube method egg, ova and cyst of gasro intestinal helminthes were diagnose in sheep in the study area. Result show that non of the sheep were positive for  GIH parasite. While on the other hand direct smear method for diagnosing GIH parasites in sheep reveals the  present  of GIH parasite in sheep in  Tambuwal district and Gindi with the sheep in Gindi   having the highest occurrence of GIH Parasites the types of GIH parasite recovered from the sheep during the course of this study are presented in table 4 one species of trematode (Paramphistomum carvi) one species of cestode (moniezia expensa) and one species of nematode (Haemonchous contortus). table 4 pressent the percentage of each species and the species with highest occurrence in sampled sheep. Haemochus sp have the highest occurrence  of (2%) followed by paramphistomum sp and moniezia sp with (1%) each.

 

             Table 1 no of sample collected in relation to district and amount of positivity

District 

No of sample examine

No of positive sample

Percentage of positive


Tambuwal District 

25

1

1 (4%)


Gindi district 

25

3

3 (12%)


Dogan daji district

25

0

0 (0%)


Jabo district 

25

0

0 (0%)


Sanyina District 

25

0

0(0%)


Total 

125

4

4%


 

 

Table 2 prevalence of GIH of sheep base on diaqnostic method

sedimentation method

District 

No of sample examine

No of positive

Percentage of positive


Tambuwal District 

7

0

(0%)


Gindi  district 

7

0

(0%)


Dogan daji district

7

0

0 (0%)


Jabo district 

7

0

0 (0%)


Sanyina District 

7

0

0(0%)


Total 

35

4



                      Simple testable method

Tambuwal District 

7

0

(0%)


Ginda district 

7

0

(0%)


Dogan daji district

7

0

0 (0%)


Jabo district 

7

0

0 (0%)


Sanyina District 

7

0

0(0%)


Total 

35

0



                          Direct smear method

Tambuwal District 

11

1

1(9.1%)


Ginda district 

11

3

3(27.3%)


Dogan daji district

11

0

0 (0%)


Jabo district 

11

0

0 (0%)


Sanyina District 

11

0

0(0%)


Total 

55

4




     Table 4  GIH parasite observe in sheep in the study area

Types of GIH parasite 

No examine 

No of positive

Percentage of positive


Paramphistomin carvi

125

1

1 (1%)


Monie zia expensa 

125

1

1(1%)


Haemiuchiou contortus 

125

2

2(2%)



Table 5 prevalence GIH infection according to the distribution of different species of parasite observed.

GIH

Tambuwal District%

Gindi District %

Dogon daji District 

Jabo District 

Sayinna District 


Hamonchous contortus 

1 (100%)

1 (33.3%)

(0%)

(0%)

(0%)


Monizia exponsa

(0%)

1(33.3%)

(%)

(0%)

(0%)


Paramphistoum carvi

0 (0%)

1 (33.3%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)


Total 

1

3

0

0

0

4



The district specific prevalence reveals that gindi district  prevalevance of 12% followed by Tambuwal district 4% with Dondondaji district and Jabo Sanyinna district having the lowest percentage 0% (Table 1) the district specific prevalence was statistically tested, and it was observed that there is a significant difference in the infection among the district at P < 0.05

The prevalence according to the types GIH parasites of sheep in the study are a shows that Haemonchanous contortus has the highest occurance of 2% while Taemia seginata and paranphistomum carvi are having the lowest  occurrence of 1% each (Table 2). The occurrence of the prevalence of the parasites species was statistically tested, and it was observed that at p < 0.05 there is a significant differences in the GIH parasites of sheep in the study area.

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 DISCUSION

The result of this investigation reveals 4% infection rate in the study area. The parasites present are Haemonchious contortus (2%).

Teania sp 1% and paramphistomoun carvi 1% the infection among the districk was low in comparison with other similar studies on in Nigeria (Anene et al, 1994, Nwosu et al., 2007, Fagbemi and Oguntinmade, 2007) and in other countries of Africa like Ethopia, Egypt (Bekele memo et at., 1982). The low level of GIH parasite infection may be due to inadequate grass availability which makes most of the sheep to consume Nylon. Nylon is bio-degradable, it block the gastro intestinal track of the sheep and give rise to lose of appetite, emaciation and may lead to death.

The occurrence of Haemonchous contortus, paramphistomum carvi and monizia expansa in sheep may be due to the feeding habit of sheep in the study area. Sheep in the study area are allowed to move or wander abound in search of grass in the field or bush. This observation is similar to that of (Susan, 2011). D.Van metre, 2010, FAD, 1992).

The parasite discovered at the course of this study are among the numerous GIH parasite which are prevalence in sheep in many part of the world. This is in accordance to so many studies or researches which had been carried out by various researchers or parasitologist in different part of the world. Most especially Africa and Nigeria (Diew et., 1998, Lee et., 2007). Possible synergistic effect on gastro intestinal helminthes on the immune system response may be reason for the relatively low prevalence of poly-parasitism when compared to more parasitism. This may ten to confer some level of protective immunity as against individuals with single infection this observation was documented in some parasite to in infections.











5.2 CONCLUSION

Conclusively, the result of this research work on the study of of gastro intestinal heminthes of sheep slaughtened in the abattoir of Tambuwal local government area shows that there is a low rate of infection and high level of species occurrence. This implies that, species could develop more rapidly under favorable environmental condition which may course more avoke to live stock farming and live stock production in the future in the study area. Therefore, live stock keeper are advise to feed their live stock in clean pasture and keep close watch on their live stock to prevent them from feeding on nylon and other non-degradable substances.       







 

5.3 RECOMMENDATION

It is recommended that:

More research work on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in livestock should be carried out.

Livestock farmers should be enlightened on the effect of living livestock to wander about in search of food.

Tambuwal local government governing body should appoint elites that will regularly monitor the nature and state of sheep being slaughtered in the abattoirs.

Finally proper hygienic environment is a preventive measure to any kind of parasitic infection. So public enlightment programmes should be conducted in the LGA on the need to maintain good environmental conditions.










REFERENCE

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Bekele, Shibrul, Tedla and feseha, (1982). Survey of gastrointestinal helminthes in sheep slaughtered at the abattoir, Ethopia. Ehioplan journal of Agricultural science 4(2): 87-94.

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Available from http://en.wikipidia .org/wiki/Nematode cite ref .o. Retrived on 30/9/2012.

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Dunn A.M. (1978). Veterinary helminthology. Wilian Helnemann medical Books, London. 323. Pp133-155. D. vanmetre (2010) Gastrointinal parasites in sheep  and grat frequently asked questions N0. 8. 019, Colorado  state university us. Department of agriculture.

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APPENDIX I

MATERIALS USED FOR SAMPLE ANALYSIS

 Beaker plastic container 

A tea strainer 

Measuring cylinder 

Stirring device 

Testubes 

Test tube rack 

Malachite green stain 

Micro sclid, cover slips 

Balance or teaspoon 

Microscope 

Specimen bottles 

 APPENDIX II

prevalence of gastro intestinal helm in thes according to district are 

District 

No Examine 

No  infected

Prevalence Percentage


Tambuwal District 

25

1

25%


Ginda district 

25

3

 75%


Dogan daji district

25

0

0%


jabo district 

25

0

0%


Sanyina District 

25

0

0%


Total 

125

4




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