DETERMINATION OF SOIL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY WITHIN KEBBI STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ALIERO, ALIERO LOCAL GOVERNMENT



A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, FACULTY OF SCIENCE, KEBBI STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ALIERO, KEBBI STATE, NIGERIA, IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.Sc. Hons) IN PHYSICS






OCTOBER, 2018.



CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this project work was undertaken by MUAZU ABUBAKAR KALLAMU with admission 1410210027. The project has been read and approved as part of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. Hons) Degree of the department of Physics, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero.


Dr. Danladi Bonde          Signature/Date ...................................................
Project Supervisor





Dr. Benjamin Wisdom Joshua Signature/Date ..........................................
Head of Department






Prof. Onyedi David Oyedun         Signature/Date ........................................
External Examiner








DEDICATION
In the name of Allah be beneficent the merciful, I thank you Almighty for giving me this opportunity and for the guidance throughout my under-graduate programme. This research work is dedicated to my able parents Alh. Abubakar Kallamu and Haj. Khadija Mohammad, I cannot summon how you truly helped me during this programme may Allah bless you in abundance.



















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to Allah for giving me the strength and opportunity to write this project.
I express my special gratitude and appreciation to my Father and my mother for their subordinate and financial support. I cannot forget to thank my supervisor in person of Dr. Danladi Bonde who with his effort this research reached to perfection. My special thanks go to a gentleman and the head of physics department in person of Dr. Benjamin Wisdom Joshua, Mal. Zayanu Magawata and all the lecturers in  physics department may God bless you all.
















TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
CERTIFICATION ii
DEDICATION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
TABLE OF CONTENT v
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2
1.2 SIGNIIFICANCE OF THE STUDY/RESEARCH 2
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH 2
1.4 LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA 2
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH 3
CHAPTER TWO 4
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 4
INTRODUCTION 4
2.1 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOIL 4
2.2 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF A SEMICODUCTOR 4
2.2.1 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY 5
2.2.2 CHEMICAL PHASE 5
2.3 SOLAR RADIATION 5
2.4 RADIATION FROM THE SUN 6
2.5 RADIATION FROM THE EARTH 7
2.5.1 SOIL MECHANICS 8
2.5.2 SOIL CLASSIFICATION 8
2.5.3 SOIL DENSITY 8
2.6 SOIL TEMPERATURE 9
2.6.1 FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL TEMPERATURE 9
2.7 EVAPORATION 9
2.7.1 CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SOIL 9
2.7.2 SOIL TEXTURE 9
CHAPTER THREE 11
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD 11
INTRODUCTION 11
3.1 MATERIALS USED 11
1. METER RULE 11
2. MULTIMETER 12
3. THERMOCOUPLE WIRE 12
4. THERMOMETER 12
5. CLOCK WATCH 12
CHAPTER FOUR 13
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 13
INTRODUCTION: 13
4.1 RESULT 13
4.2 STATION 1 13
4.3 STATION 2 14
4.4 STATION 3 15
4.5 STATION 4 16
4.6 STATION 5 17
4.7 STATION 6 18
4.8 STATION 7 19
4.8 GENERAL DISCUSSION 20
CHAPTER FIVE 21
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION 21
5.1 SUMMARY 21
5.2 CONCLUSION 21
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 22
REFERENCES 23
APPENDIX 1: 24
APPENDIX 2 25
APPENDIX 3 26
APPENDIX 4 27
APPENDIX 5 28
APPENDIX 6 29
APPENDIX 7 30
ABSTRACT
The investigation of thermal conductivity of soil was conducted in some selected areas of Kebbi State University of Science and Technology. The measurement was positioned horizontally to the surface of the ground, and at a time from 9:00am to 6:00pm. Based on hourly reading, the graph of temperature against time was plotted. Soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity was used to determine how soil warms or cools with exchange of energy through the conduction, convection, and radiation process. Both heat capacity and thermal conductivity depend on water content. The ability to monitor soil heat capacity, thermal conductivity and temperature is an important tool in managing the soil temperature regime. The temperature was recorded according to depth of 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm, 25cm, and 30cm. Finally, the results obtained were found that the soils of different surface are strongly dependent on nature of the surface. 













 CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The need to investigate the temperature of an environment is necessary for example the natural resources (mineral resources) in the soil that are extract from it where situated at different layers of the earth surface. It absorb heat  at a certain degrees of temperature,  food and shelter all can be influenced by the thermal conductivity of soil, therefore change either physically, chemically or biologically is controlled by heat energy that reaches the soil almost entirely from the solar radiation. This shows that the higher and lower temperature attached will precede an optimum temperature which will be within the relative narrow range. High soil temperature associated with heat influence area can be controlled by altering soil properties and soil chemicals by killing microbes, plant roots, and seeds etc. i.e. due to the intense heat that is increasingly common component of the landscape (Graham 2003) and because heat is frequently used by land managers to harness surface fuels, it is pertinent to know if and how soil properties may change as a consequence of heat associated with soil heat pulse. In particular, it is important to know whether the intrinsic (dry) soil thermo physical properties, negative volumetric specific heat capacity (Cs) and the thermal conductivity (k) yields a negative change as a result of soil heat. Significant changes, particularly in the intrinsic thermal conductivity of heat-affected soils, could indicate changes in the soil’s structure, because soil thermal conductivity is strongly influenced by soil structure (Farouki 1986). Furthermore, such changes will lead to changes in the daily energy flow through the soil and the associated patterns and magnitudes of soil temperatures, which in turn may affect soil chemistry, soil aggregate stability, soil biota and ultimately the nature of the soil recovery from the heat.
Soil thermal properties are required in many aspects such as engineering, agronomy, and soil science and in recent years considerable effort has gone into developing techniques to determine these properties. Thermal conductivity is considered one of the most important thermal property of plant environment. It is considered as the property that controls heat flow through materials of different types.
The thermal conductivity of a soil depends on several factors. These factors can be arranged into two broad groups, those which are inherent to the soil itself, and those which can be managed or controlled, at least to a certain extent artificially. Those factors or properties that are inherent to the soil include the texture and mineralogical composition of the soil. Factors influencing soil’s thermal conductivity that can be managed externally include water content and soil bulk density. The way soil is managed will play an important role in determining its thermal conductivity. Any practice or process which tends to cause soil compaction will increase bulk density and decrease porosity of a soil. This in turn will have a significant impact on thermal conductivity.
Hence, soil thermal conductivity increases with increase in moisture vice-visa.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
As a result of poor temperature of the soil which contributes in damaging agricultural product, certain measures about the thermal conductivity of soil is set into consideration in order to render problems governing the whole produce in a given area, therefore it is essential to embark on research against the thermal conductivity of soil especially in the tropical areas so as to tackle the effect of heat on a particular soil.
1.2 SIGNIIFICANCE OF THE STUDY/RESEARCH
This research work has impact on the soil mineral resources, the development of agricultural products and animal rearing and entirely helps in infrastructural development.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The main aim is to determine the soil thermal conductivity:-
The aims are as follows;
To analyze the apparent change in temperature per hour.
To measure the temperature and classification of soil.
To investigate the factors which render the soil temperature..
To analyze the nature of soil and its mineral resources.
1.4 LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA
The research project is carried out in Kebbi State University of science and Technology, barely covered by sandy soil. Kebbi State University is situated in Aliero town with an average annual temperature of 28C (82°F), rice, millet, maize, and onions were best cultivated in this area, livestock were raised in the area. Production of onion in Aliero is common and it is used to called the largest producing onion nationwide.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH
The research work is carried in Kebbi State University in Aliero local government.
Its geographical coordinates are 5’15”E to 50° 15’05”E latitude 13°05’13” N 13°09’45” in the dry Sahel surrounded by savannah and isolated hills.
The measurement of thermal conductivity was carried out successfully in the chapter four below. The instruments used in the research were mentioned precisely.


















CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
 INTRODUCTION
This chapter is concerned with the previous research work. The basic presumption is that any significant change in the soil thermal properties should be noticed from changes in the daily temperature and heat flux wave. Assume soil thermal properties that are uniform with depth and constant with time, hence the daily temperature and heat flux waves can be expressed as Fourier series. Thermal conductivity (often denoted by k or k) is the property of a material to conduct heat. It is evaluated primarily in terms of fourier’s law for heat conduction. In general, thermal conductivity is a tensor property, expressing the anisotropy of the property (Wikipedia).
With depth, which implies that the maximum soil heat flux at a given depth should lead the maximum soil temperature at the same depth by 3 hours however, an analysis of the phase between the measured heat fluxes and temperature suggested that the soil heat flux leads the temperatures by between 2.5 and 2.7 hours. See Massman and frank (2004) in their research based on thermal conductivity of soil.
However, the difference between the thermal conductivities between the heat flux transducer (HFT) and the soil must be put into account.
2.1 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOIL
Thermal conductivity is the property of a material to conduct heat. It is evaluated primarily in terms of Fourier’s law. Fourier’s law can be written as;
.                                  .           .              .           (1)
Where, q is heat flux, k is thermal conductivity.
Thermal conductivity is measured in watt per meter Kelvin (W/m.k).
2.2 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF A SEMICODUCTOR
A semi conductor is a material which has electrical conductivity between that of a conductor such as copper and that of an isolator such as alas, semi conductors are the basic foundation of modern electronics including a transistor, solar battery cells, light emitting diode, quantum dots and digital or analogue integrated circuit. The modern properties of the semi conductor depend on quantum physics to explain the movement of electron inside a lattice of an atom.
The conductivity of a semi conductor increase in temperature behaviors opposite to that of metal. Semi conductor can display range of useful property such as passing current easily in one direction than the other variable resistance and is sensitive to lighter heat.
2.2.1 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
We can make a useful analog between thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity.
The electric current I flowing along a conductor = dQ/dt, since dQ is the quantity of charge passing a given section in a time dt. Also, I =V/R, where V is the potential difference between the ends of the conductor and R is the resistance. R= ƿl/A, where ƿ is the resistivity of the material, l is the length and A is its cross-sectional area (Nelkon & Parker).
 So,
I =  = .                                                                        . . . (2)
For heat conduction,
 = kA × temperature gradient.                                     . . . (3)
2.2.2 CHEMICAL PHASE
When a material undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas the thermal conductivity may change. An example of this would be the change in thermal conductivity that occurs when ice (thermal conductivity of 2.18 W/(m⋅K) at 0 °C) melts to form liquid water (thermal conductivity of 0.56 W/(m⋅K) at 0 °C) (Wikipedia).
2.3 SOLAR RADIATION
Solar radiation refers to the radiation of energy that is absorbed from the sun, it is known as shorter wave’s radiation. Solar radiation has the following radiations in common such as visible light, radio wave, infra-red, X-rays and ultra violet rays. Measurement for solar radiation is light on clear sunny days and usually lower when the sun is down and heavy cloud block the sun, in this case solar radiation is measured as zero radiation.
Also the amount of heat from the sun that is reaching the ground is approximately 2.714W/(m.k), the amount that is actually received by the soil surface is much less and its depends on, first the angle with which the soil faces the sun due to the latitude time of the day, steepness and the direction of the location. Secondly, the insulation by air of water vapor cloud, snow plant or much in the temperature zone. Between 135.7 W/(m.k) and 1085.6 W/(m.k) of the relation at each surface per day 787.06 W/(m.k) of energy are required to evaporate a layer of water 1cm thickness because only one part of total radiation is available to supply energy for evaporation and the rest heat the soil and is used in photosynthesis or is eradicated into the sky, a solar radiation occur as shorter wave radiation. The wave length is ranging from 0.3m to 0.5m (Alkinyosaye, 1973).
The sun observed by summer instrument on the sotto satellite on March 1996 (source sotto-summer instrument) almost all the energy that drives the various system (climate system, ecosystem, hydrological system etc.) found on the earth originated from the sun. Solar energy increased the core of sun when hydrogen atoms are fused into helium by nuclear fusion. The core occupies on the area from the sun’s center to about a meter of the sun radius. At the core, gravity pulls all the mass of the sun inward and creates intense pressure. This pressure is high enough to force the fusion of atomic mass for each second of the solar nuclear fusion process, 700 million tons of hydrogen is converted into the atom helium. Since its formation 45 billion years ago, the sun has used up about half of hydrogen found in its core. The solar nuclear process also creates immense heat that causes atoms to discharge photons. Temperature at the core are about 15 million °C or 27 million °F) Foch photon that created travels about a short distanced before being absorbed by an adjacent gas molecules. This absorbed the cause of heat from the neighboring atom and it re-emits another photon that again travels a short distance before being connected to outer space at the surface the last 20 per cent of the journey to the surface the energy is transported more by conservation than by radiation.
2.4 RADIATION FROM THE SUN
Radiation from the sky contributes large amount of heat to the soil in area where the sun rays have to penetrate the earth atmosphere very obliquely under cold condition. Much of the sun’s energy is absorbed by the atmosphere and re-radiates in all direction. In tropical countries the rays from the sun pass through the atmosphere more nearly vertically and lose little of their energy therefore the proportion of radiation from the sky under condition is small.
Radiation from the sun which is more popularly known as sunlight is a mixture of electromagnetic wave ranging from infrared (IR) to ultraviolet rays (UV). It causes visible light, which is in between (IR) and (UV) in the electromagnetic spectrum.
All electromagnetic waves (EM) travel at a speed of approximately 3.0 m/s in vacuum, through space is not perfect vacuum as it is really composed of low density particles, (EM) waves, neutrons and magnetic field, it can certainly be approximated as such now since the average distance between the earth and the sun over one earth is one all labor (150,000,000,000m), then it will take about 8 minutes for radiation from the sun to get to the earth. Actually the sun does not only produce IR, visible light, UV fusion in the core but also gives off high energy gamma rays. However photons make their arduous journey to the surface of the sun, they are continuously absorbed by the solar plasma and re-emitted to lower frequency. During solar flows, the sun also emits X-rays. X-rays radiation from the sun was first observed by T. Burnight during a rocket flight. This was later confirmed by gapan’sYohkoh, a satellite launched in 1991.  When electromagnetic radiation from the sun strikes the earth’s atmosphere some of it is absorbed, while this process of sending radiation to the earth surface in particular W is absorbed by the ozone layer and re-emitted as heat, eventually heating the stratosphere. Some of this radiation was re-radiated to the outer space for a mean time. The electromagnetic radiation is now absorbed by the atmosphere and later it is re-emitted to the earth surface and heat it up. Some of this heat stay there while the re-emitted upon reading the atmosphere part of it get and part of it passes through. Naturally the one that get absorbed add to the heat already there the presence of greenhouse gases make the atmosphere to absorb more heat, reducing the fraction of out bound EM waves that pass through the surface known as the greenhouse effect, this is the reason why heat can be held up somewhere.
2.5 RADIATION FROM THE EARTH
Radiation of heat from the soil atmosphere occurs continuously with time hence, radiation through vacuum is greater than through air, since air absorbed part of the radiation energy cloud, much vapor reduce heat from the soil. Heat transition varies as the fourth  power of the absolute temperature of the radiation object so also soil remain cold during cloudy night, and color has a considerable effect on the reflection of incoming short waves radiation, the darker the color of the soil the smarter the refraction of the incoming radiation that is reflected.
2.5.1 SOIL MECHANICS
Many definitions were given to soil according to farmers, soil is substance that support plant, soil is the top most layer of earth on which plant grow, a mixture of sand and organic material, used to support plant growth, the term soil has a broader meaning earth or soil in the engineering sense, is defined as a very unconsolidated material composed of a discrete solid particles with gas or liquid between them. Soil include a wide variety of material such as gravel, sand, and clay mixture, soil can be well defined as the mixture of few specific mineral chaotic mixture of most material, soil is not fixed, but defined by engineering function in valued (George 1979).
Also in the other word soil mechanics is a branch of engineering that describe the soil mechanics which differs from fluid mechanics and soil mechanics in the sense that soil consist of a heterogeneous mixture of fluid (usually clay, silt and gravel) and particle (air and water may also contain organic solid, liquid ,gases and other materials) also with rock mechanics soil provide theoretical basis for analysis in geotechnical engineering a sub discipline of civil engineering in engineering geology, soil mechanics is used to analyze the formation of flow of fluid within natural and man made structures that are buried in the soil. Examples and applications are, building and laying foundations, retaining walls and buried pipeline system. Principles of soil mechanics are also used in related discipline such as engineering geology, geo physical engineering, coastal engineering, agricultural engineering and hydrology soil physics (Wikipedia 2018).
2.5.2 SOIL CLASSIFICATION
White soil is a three phase system; the mechanical composition refers, only to it solid phase. This is made up of minerals and organic compound. Mechanical composition here refers to the alternate particles such as sand, silt and clay, not to the inside of the chemical, physical as well as biological potential consequently, the soil particle can be explained by the help of size, density, chemical composition and shape of the soil.
2.5.3 SOIL DENSITY
The density of the soil mineral derives a considerable impact from the soil average volume. The bulk density of soil depends greatly on the mineral made up of soil and the degree of compaction. The density of quartz is around 2.65 g/cm³ but the (dry) bulk density of a mineral soil is normally about half that density, between 1.0 and 1.6 g/cm³ (Wikipedia). Shape of the soil, the shape of the soil also contributes in finding the suitable soil for the crop growth.
2.6 SOIL TEMPERATURE
Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. Ideally the temperature of a soil depends on the temperature of an area.
2.6.1 FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL TEMPERATURE
Changes in temperature affect vapor and pressure of the soil water, in a most soil the relative humidity of the air is between 98% and 100%, this means that vapor pressure of the water under such condition can change material only on as a temperature of the soil determined by the interaction of numerous factors, all soil heat come from two source (i.e. radiation from the sun and sky condition from interior of the earth). Both external environment and internal soil factors contribute in bringing about change of soil temperature as earlier mentioned.
2.7 EVAPORATION
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gas phase before reaching its boiling point.
2.7.1 CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SOIL
Silicon made up the largest part of the mineral. Although the chemical composition of soil particle varies greatly from profile to profile.
2.7.2 SOIL TEXTURE
A loamy soil is having a relatively even mixture of the different grade of sand silt and clay, it has a somewhat gritty feel, yet fairly smooth and slightly plastic, squeezed when dried.
Sandy soil is single grained, the individual grain can be seen or felt. Can be felt in the hand when dried and will fall apart when pressure is released. It has poor water holding capacity. Silt loamy is a soil having a moderate amount of sand and only a small amount of clay, over half of the particle can be readily broken. Silt is a fine texture soil If the moist soil is pinched between thumbs and fingers it will form a long flexible ribbon.
Therefore, the three main components of soil can be identified or recognized in the field by test, feel or gritty, when the silt is pressed with a finger show finger print and clay when streaked between fingers shows a shiny surface (Kohnke 1979).


















CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD
 INTRODUCTION
The chapter consists of materials used in conducting this research. Six 6 thermocouple wire were used and thermometer in this research to measure the thermal conductivity of soil; different depths were measured using a meter rule at the ranging from (5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm, 25cm, 30cm, 35cm)  thermometer was inserted in each depth of 1m, where there is availability of sandy soil, and excess amount of sunlight incident on it. The measured parameters are temperature (T) and voltage , the temperature is taken by thermometer in degree Celsius (C°) which represent T from the table below. While the voltage reading is by the thermocouple wire using multimeter, in which the cold junction is dipped into the soil and hot junction test lead of multimeter in respect of their polarity then the rotate switch is set into required volt which is constant at 200mV then the multimeter will display the result in volts which will represent E from the table.
3.1 MATERIALS USED
 1. Meter rule
 2. Multimeter
 3. Thermocouple
 4. Thermometer
 5. Clock watch
 1. METER RULE
Meter rule also called a ruler of line gauge, it is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing and printing as well as engineering to measure the distance or to draw a straight line. A ruler also contains calibrated line to measure distance. Rulers have long been made of many materials of different types, some are wooded, plastic they can be molded with length making instead of being scribed. Metal is used for more durable rulers in workshop, sometimes a metal edge is embedded into ruler to preserve the edge when used for straight-line cutting like 12 inches or 30cm in length is useful to help in drawing. Shorter rulers are convenient for keeping inside the pocket, like 14 inches (45cm) ruler.
2. MULTIMETER
General description of multimeters are pocket sized 31/2 digital multimeters for measuring direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) voltage, AC current resistance, temperature and testing diode some models also provide transistor test function, signal output or performing continuity test. Overload protection and low battery indication are provided.
3. THERMOCOUPLE WIRE
Thermocouple wire is used for measuring temperature which consists of two dissimilar or different conductors, each at one spot. It produces a voltage of one of the spot the circuit. Thermocouple wire is used to measure the temperature related to electric potential.
4. THERMOMETER
Thermometer is a device that is used to measure temperature or a temperature gradient using a variety of different principle. A thermometer has two important elements; the temperature sensor (e.g mercury in glass thermometer), plus some means of converting physical change into numerical value (e.g the visible scale that mixed up mercury in glass thermometer). We have different types of thermometer, There are Primary thermometers that measure the properties of matter, example of these are thermometer based on the equation of state of gas, on velocity of sound in a gas on thermal noise voltage and current of an electric resistance, on black body radiation, and on angular anisotropy of gamma ray emission of certain radioactive nuclear in a magnetic field, primary thermometer are relatively complex.
5. CLOCK WATCH
This referred to as a device that is used to measure actual daily hours while taken measurement.






CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
INTRODUCTION:
This is concerned with consists of documentation of results. The graphical representations of the results are described in this chapter. However, the locations are stated on top of every graph.
4.1 RESULT: The results are shown in graphical form as bellow.
4.2 STATION 1: BEHIND PHYSICS LAB, T1 represent the temperature of the soil, and it was found that at a certain time interval the temperature is high for example around 5 to 6 hours from the initial time the temperature can reach up to 4°C and it start to decrease after 8-9 hours of time i.e. T2, T3, T4, T5 AND T6 all lies between the time interval as T1.

Figure 4.1 Graph of Temperature (°C) against Time (h) at 5cm depth.
4.3 STATION 2: IN FRONT OF CENTRAL MOSUE, T1 represent the temperature of the soil, and it was found that at a certain time interval the temperature is high for example around 5 to 6 hours from the initial time the temperature can reach up to 4°C and it start to decrease after 8-9 hours of time i.e. T2, T3, T4, T5 AND T6 all lies between the time interval as T1.


Figure 4.2 Graph of Temperature (°C) against Time (h) at 10cm depth.

4.4 STATION 3: IN FRONT OF ICT DEPT, T1 represent the temperature of the soil, and it was found that at a certain time interval the temperature is high for example around 5 to 6 hours from the initial time the temperature can reach up to 4°C and it start to decrease after 8-9 hours of time i.e. T2, T3, T4, T5 AND T6 all lies between the time interval as T1.


Figure 4.3 Graph of Temperature (°C) against Time (h) at 15cm depth



4.8 GENERAL DISCUSSION
Spatial characteristics of characteristics of the experimental data for each soil property were determined. It was found that the thermal conductivity was mostly influenced by soil wetness, mineralogical composition, bulk density and organic matter content and less by temperature (°C), air pressure and humidity in the soil. A similar soil texture, the thermal conductivity was mostly influence by soil wetness and bulk density. Differentiations in sand contain hard significant effect on spatial variability of the thermal conductivity. The parameters of the thermal conductivity were related with spatial distribution of soil wetness and bulk density. It is observed that, hourly rise in temperatures are gotten in the surface of the depth of 5cm to rise  at hourly basis seldom exceed 30°C between one hour to the depth at 10cm, 15cm, 20cm, 25cm and 30cm the temperature difference is at least 45°C through the day, at 2:00pm the temperature of the soil is at highest peak through the day of the study in hourly cases, it is also discovered that fluctuation were as ambient temperature of the soil reaches its greater intensity at 2:00pm before its start decreasing the daily rise in temperature of the soil in the surface soil, at 5cm depth the rise in temperature exceed to about 40°C were at 10cm to 30cm rise in temperature does not exceed 30°C  as well.
 The high temperature of the soil is about 35° C and lowest is about 17.5°C also at the  temperature the higher is about 55°c and the lowest is about 23°C at the   temperature the higher is about 55°C the lowest is about 26°C at the  temperature the higher is about 58°C and  the lowest is about 23°C at the temperature the higher is about 55°C and the lowest temperature is about 18°C at the  temperature the higher is about 49°C and the lowest is 25°C at the  temperature the higher is 55°C and the lowest is 24°C.
Consequently from the above analysis the temperature increase from 9:00am up to 3:00pm where as from 4:00pm the temperature of the soil decreases and it was discovered that the temperature of the soil will decrease with depth. The higher the solar radiation the greater the soil temperature. The more the solar radiation intensity the greater in soil temperature. The temperature condition of the soil are created under the action of the incident solar radiation and heat exchange between the soil surface and air (i.e. the ambient air temperature) the temperature distribution in a soil is established by heat flow which is determined by the soil thermal properties, soil water supply and soil surface energy balance
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION

5.1 SUMMARY
The spatial variability of the soil thermal conductivity over cultivated fields is determined mainly by soil water content and bulk density values and their variation due to weather conditions, agricultural treatments and crops. At the same spatial distribution of bulk density, the range of spatial autocorrelation of soil thermal conductivity was related to soil water content. At the field capacity it was similar to the range of bulk density, while for the lower content it was similar to the range of water content.
As regard to this experiment,
A sandy soil is verily weak immature soil covering the central portion of the clay soil, and is of different colors such as brown, reddish or yellow sandy soil, with texture grade of fine sand or loam and air development over the sandy parent material. The sandy soil is weak in structure and has low water holding capacity, usually deficient in available nitrogen, phosphorus as well as potassium. Crops that are grown on this type of soil include, millet, guinea corn, beans etc. however the temperature distribution in sandy soil is very rapid. Status of available variant is generally high in this type of soil. Less thermal conductivity compare to fadama soil as much thermal diffusivity is less than that of sandy soil. The temperature considerable moderate at very depth as such it yield good agricultural product. Marcos the large daily temperature fluctuation in the soil profile are brought about by high insulation low albedo, dry surface profile of the soil are brought about twice as long as the warming period, this because the rate of heat gain by incoming radiation exceed the continuous heat loss by out coming radiation normally only from sunrise to one or two hours in the afternoon and rate of penetration. Solar radiation or heat wave within the soil carried around one to two hours per ten centimeters (10cm) deep in the soil.
5.2 CONCLUSION
The research work for the measurement of thermal conductivity of soil is very important for any society to put into consideration in order to know the appropriate land which is good for the cultivation of food crop or cash crop in the development of agricultural activities.

5.3 RECOMMENDATION
I observed that sometimes change in soil temperature can cause damage to agricultural product.
And due to apparent temperature fluctuation the average temperature is important hence, should be noted.
The thermal conductivity of soil is mainly affected by the soil water content and bulk density.
It is advisable to use a technical device to measure the soil thermal conductivity for further investigation.

















REFERENCES

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Graham Williams (2003) “Geology, 11th edition” Mc grow Hill ltd 2003, Norway state university press No ISBN pp 15-17.
Massman Bray and Frank Peter (2004), “Geophysics 8th edition” published by Rayman press pp 151-152.
Alkinyosaye Alba (1973) “Astrophysics 2nd edition” published by Tichala pp 23-30 No ISBN pp 67-68
 George Smith (1979) “Classification of soil”, published by Hithi Cambridge university, ISBN 978-0521-625-81 pp 78-79
http//www.google.com/Wikipedia/soil mechanics by peter john 07/09/2018
http//www.google.com/Wikipedia/soil bulk density by Joshua Rich 08/09/2018
Smith. I (2013: “smith elements of soil mechanics”, 8th edition, published by john willey and son. pp 76-77
Kohnke, H. (1979): “soil physics”, MCgraw Hill publishing company limited New Delhi.
pp 80-81
Nelkon and  parker (1996):” Advanced level physics” 8th edition 1996 ISBN 274-8121-80
Graham L.O.G, W.H and N.R (1997) “Soil Physics Edition”   pp 55-56 No ISBN
Farouki, O.T. (1986): “Thermal properties of soil trans Tech “ published by suwali pp 45-47
Nelkon. M and Mrs. P. Parker 1958: “Advanced level physics 7th Edition” Pp No 689-690 ISBN: 0-435-92303-X Published by satish kumar jain.
http//www.google.com/en.m.wikipedia.org 24/10/2018

APPENDIX 1:
TABLE ONE: Table of temperature (C°) and voltages (mv) at 5cm against time for day 1 from 9:am to 6:pm.
Time
Am-pm
E1
(mv)
E2
(mv)
E3
(mv)
E4
(mv)
E5
(mv)
E6
(mv)
T1
(°C)
T2
(°C)
T3
(°C)
T4
(°C)
T5
 (°C)
T6
(°C)

9:00
0.19
0.20
0.22
0.23
0.23
0.23
28
28.5
29
30
29
31

10:00
0.21
0.21
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.23
31
31
32
32.5
33
34

11:00
0.24
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.26
0.27
35
35
36
36
37
37

12:00
0.26
0.27
0.29
0.28
0.28
0.28
38
39
41
37
38
38

1:00
0.26
0.26
0.25
0.25
0.24
0.24
36
35
35
35.5
34
34

2:00
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.25
0.25
34.9
35
35
35.5
35
35

3:00
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.22
34.9
3
35
30
31
31.7

4:00
0.21
0.20
0.20
0.21
0.21
0.20
31.5
31.4
30
30
30.1
30

5:00
0.21
0.20
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.19
30
30
31
30
29
29

6:00
0.20
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.19
0.19
29
29.5
29.4
28.9
28
28











APPENDIX 1:
TABLE ONE: Table of temperature (C°) and voltages (mv) at 5cm against time for day 1 from 9:am to 6:pm.
Time
Am-pm
E1
(mv)
E2
(mv)
E3
(mv)
E4
(mv)
E5
(mv)
E6
(mv)
T1
(°C)
T2
(°C)
T3
(°C)
T4
(°C)
T5
 (°C)
T6
(°C)

9:00
0.19
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.24
0.24
29
29
30
31.5
33
34

10:00
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.26
35
36
36
37
37
37

11:00
0.24
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.26
37
38
38
39
40
41

12:00
0.27
.27
0.28
0.28
0.29
0.29
41
40
39.5
41
41
41

1:00
0.30
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.32
40
41
41
41.5
41.5
42

2:00
0.30
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.32
41
40
40
40.2
40
40.5

3:00
0.29
0.28
0.30
0.30
0.31
0.31
41.2
41
40
40
39.5
39

4:00
0.29
0.29
0.28
0.27
0.26
0.25
39
39.8
37
36
35
34

5:00
0.26
0.27
0.29
0.28
0.29
0.28
34
33
31
31
30
30

6:00
0.18
0.18
0.19
0.18
0.18
0.18
30
30
29
28
28
28








APPENDIX 1:
TABLE ONE: Table of temperature (C°) and voltages (mv) at 5cm against time for day 1 from 9:am to 6:pm.
Time
Am-pm
E1
(mv)
E2
(mv)
E3
(mv)
E4
(mv)
E5
(mv)
E6
(mv)
T1
(°C)
T2
(°C)
T3
(°C)
T4
(°C)
T5
 (°C)
T6
(°C)

9:00
0.18
0.19
0.18
0.19
0.18
0.30
29
29
29.9
29.9
30
30

10:00
0.29
0.29
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.26
31
32
31.5
32
33
33

11:00
0.27
0.28
0.26
0.26
0.26
0.26
34
35
34.5
35
36
37

12:00
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.27
0.26
35
36
36
36
36.5
36.5

1:00
0.26
0.26
0.25
0.26
0.26
0.27
36
36
36.5
36
36.5
37.5

2:00
0.28
0.29
0.28
0.27
0.28
0.28
38
38
39
38
38
38.5

3:00
0.28
0.28
0.28
0.26
0.27
0.27
38
38
38
37.5
37.5
37

4:00
0.26
0.26
0.26
0.27
0.26
0.25
37
36.5
35
36
36
35

5:00
0.24
0.21
0.22
0.24
0.23
0.23
34.5
34.5
34




6:00
0.24
0.19
0.23
0.19
0.18
0.19









































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