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FREE PROJECT ON COMPARATIVE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF GROUNDNUT, PALM AND SHEAR NUT OILS

FREE PROJECT ON COMPARATIVE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF GROUNDNUT, PALM AND SHEAR NUT OILS

FREE PROJECT ON COMPARATIVE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF GROUNDNUT, PALM AND SHEAR NUT OILS



     TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page…………………………………………………………………………………………i

Certification……………………………………………………………………………………...ii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………….iii

Acknowledgment………………………………………………………………………………iv

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………..v

Table of content…………………………………………………………………………………vi

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….........1

Fats and oil: an overview…………………………………………………………….…….3

Classes of lipids……………………………………………………………………………..4

Functions of fats and oil……………………………………………………………………5

Vegetable oil: an overview…………………………………………………………………6

Groundnut oil (peanut oil)………………………………………………………………….8

Palm oil………………………………………………………………………………………9

Shear nut oil………………………………………………………………………………..10

Aims and objectives of study……………………………………………………………..11

CHAPTER TWO 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1.0 Materials and method…………………………………………………………………..12

2.1.1 Sample collection and treatment………………………………………………………12

2.1.2 Reagents used………………………………………………………………………….13

2.1.3 Equipments used………………………………………………………………………14

2.2.0 Methods………………………………………………………………………………….14

2.2.1 Preparation of reagents……………………………………………………………...…14

2.2.2 Determination of Saponification value……………………………………………….16

2.2.3 Determination of Free fatty acid……………………………………………………….17

2.2.4 Determination of Iodine value …………………………………………………………18

2.2.5 Determination of Acid value……………………………………………………………19

2.2.6 Determination of Peroxide value………………………………………………………20

2.2.7 Determination of Moisture content…………………………………………………….21

2.2.8 Determination of Specific gravity………………………………………………………22

CHAPTER THREE

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Results and discussion…………………………………………………………………...24

CHAPTER FOUR

 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 

4.1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………28

4.2 Recommendations………………………………………………………………………...29

      References…………………………………………………………………………………30

      Appendix I………………………………………………………………………………….33

      Appendix II……………………………………………………………………..................34



 CHAPTER ONE              

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

INTRODUCTION

                  Edible oils from plant sources are of important interest in various food and application industries. They provide characteristic flavors and textures to foods as integral diet components (Odoemelam, 2005). They can also serve as a source of Oleochemicals (Morrison et al., 1995). Oleochemicals are chemicals derived from plant and animal fats. They are analogous to petrochemicals derived from petroleum. Oleochemicals are completely degradable and so could substitute a number of petrochemicals. The most common application of Oleochemicals is biodiesel production.

Oils are used for many purposes. They are used in cooking, frying, baking and in many industrial processes like in the manufacture of soap, cosmetics and paints (oil). The demand for oils has increased for both industrial and nutritional processes, hence, leading to the exploitation of oils in different types of plants.   

Peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) is an important source of edible oil for millions of people living in Nigeria. Peanuts are rich in oil, naturally containing from 47 to 50%. The oil is pale yellow and has the characteristic odor and flavor of peanuts (O’Brien, 1998).            

Shea oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the seeds of Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) (Okullo et al., 2004). It constitutes an important source of fat in food and cosmetics. Although shear nut oil can be marketed both locally and internationally, increasing demand worldwide for exportable products calls for their certification. Shea oil is edible and is used in food preparation. In some parts of Nigeria like Niger state and Kebbi state, shea butter locally known as “man kade” is used in cooking and for the management of sinusitis and relief of nasal congestion. It is also applied as lotion to protect the skin during the dry harmattan season.

Palm oil is a type of vegetable oil derived from the palm fruit, grown on the African oil palm tree. Oil palm trees are of wet African origin, but can also row in places where heat and rainfall are abundant. Palm oil along with peanut oil are the most popular and most used vegetable oils in Nigeria. Like groundnut oil, palm oil is used in baking, cooking, cosmetics, body products and cleansing agents.

        As of 2011, Nigeria was the third-largest producer of palm oil, with approximately 2.3 million hectares under cultivation. Until 1934, Nigeria had been the world’s largest producer. Both small- and large- scale producers participated in the industry (Ayodele, 2010).

It is important to consider the fact that, nutritionally, oil is considered and preferred to animal fat owing to the presence of unsaturated fatty acid (Otunola et al., 2009). Besides the fact mentioned above, vegetable oils do not contain cholesterol (US FFD, 1990)

The importance of vegetable oils cannot be over emphasized amongst which are their role in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, cosmetics and food amongst others.

  With the increasing global demand for vegetable oils, characterization of physico-chemical properties of these oils is essential. This study therefore investigated the distinction of the physico-chemical properties of peanut, palm and shea nut oils.

1.2 FATS AND OIL: AN OVERVIEW

                     Fats and oil are subgroups of a larger class called lipids. Lipids are a group of molecules which occur in nature that include fats, waxes, oils, fat soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A,E,D and K) , glycerides (that is mono-, di- and triglycerides) phospholipids among others. Lipids act as structural components of cell membranes (Fahy et al., 2009)

     Lipids are large and diverse groups that are related by their ability to dissolve in non-polar organic solvents such as benzene and chloroform and by their insolubility in water. Lipids are described as small hydrophobic or amphiphatic molecules that may entirely or impart through condensation of thioesters and isoprene units.

      Apart from acting as structural components of the cell membranes, lipids have significance in food and cosmetics industries as mentioned before. The main biological significance of lipids is storing of energy and signaling and also in nanotechnology (Mashaghi et al., 2013).

 

1.3 CLASSES OF LIPIDS    

     FATTY ACIDS

     Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain which can be either saturated or unsaturated. Most fatty acids that occur in nature contain a chain of an even number of carbon atom ranging from 4 to 28 (IUPAC, 1997). Fatty acids are arranged in such a way that confers them with a polar hydrophilic end, and a non-polar, hydrophobic end that is insoluble in water.

     Fatty acids are classified into two major categories which include the saturated, unsaturated and poly saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids are those containing saturated carbon atoms. Unsaturated and poly saturated fatty acids are those that possess pi bonds at different and specific intervals.

GLYCEROLIPIDS

         Glycerolipids are a structurally heterogeneous group of lipids that play key structural and functional roles in plant and animal membranes. They all have at least one hydrophobic chain linked to a glycerol backbone in an ester or ether linkage. Glycerolipids are composed of mono-, di- and tri substituted glycerols (Coleman and Lee, 2004). 

                Triglycerides are called fats if they are solid at room temperature and called oil if they are liquid at room temperature. Solid fats are mostly obtained from animal except fish (Wade, 2006). Triglycerides in plants are in form of oil.



1.4 FUNCTIONS OF FATS AND OIL

    Fats and oil have several biological uses which include energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, or acting as important signaling molecules.

ENERGY STORAGE: The insolubility of fats and oil in water enables them to be stored in special ways inside the body’s cells as they contain a lot of calories within a small space. Fats and oils are generally used for long term energy storage in both plants and animals. Fat is a more efficient source of long term energy than carbohydrate because metabolism of a gram of fat releases over twice as much every as a gram of sugar or starch (Wade, 2006).      

CHEMICAL MESSENGERS: All; multicellular organisms use chemical messengers to send information between organelles and to other cells. The signaling lipids, in their esterified form can infiltrate membranes and are transported to carry signals to other cells. These may bind to certain proteins as well and are inactive until they reach the state of action and encounter the appropriate receptor.

MEDICINE: Vegetable oil contains palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids which can be used as medicine. Peanut oil in combination with lime juice can be used in protection from black heeds. Peanut oil is also beneficial for people suffering from arthritis (Yusoff, 2010).

CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES AND PHARMACEUTICALS: Fats and oil are very vital in production of some chemical products like soaps, oil paints, cosmetics, polishes amongst others. They also play an important role in the pharmaceutical industry. Oils , owing to their medicinal properties play a significant role in the pharmaceutical industry. Cod liver oil and habitat liver oil are essential source of vitamin A (McGraw, 1973).

1.5 VEGETABLE OIL: AN OVERVIEW     

    Vegetable oils are triglycerides extracted from oil containing seed leaves, stems, nuts and fruits. Such oils have been part of human culture for millions of years. The extraction of oils from plants can be carried out via processes like solvent extraction, expression, steam/hydro distillation amongst others (Aluyor et al., 2008).

    Extraction methods are a major characteristic of oil specifications because of the potential adverse effects if misemployed. Each extraction method must be approximately controlled for the most optimum quality per unit cost achievable.

    Most vegetable oils are obtained from seeds, which generally furnish two valuable commodities- oil and a protein-rich meal. Seed extraction is achieved by processing and/or by solvent extraction. Oil such as palm and olive, on the other hand, are pressed out of the soft fruit (endosperm).

    Seeds give oils in different proportions. World average oil yields are reported as: soybeans (18.3%); rapeseed (38.6%); sunflower (40.9%); groundnut (40.3%); cottonseed (15.1%); coconut (62.4%); palm kernel (44.6%); sesame (42.4%); linseed (33.5%); average for oilseeds (25.8%). In addition, yields from palm fruit (45-50-%), olive (25-30%) and corn (about 5%) are as indicated (Mielke, 2001).

     Having obtained these oils using any of the methods of extraction mentioned before, they are subjected to various kinds of physical and chemical purification processes.

     Vegetable oils are obtained from many plants, the major ones being those derived from peanuts, olive plant, cottonseed, sunflower and soybeans. Others include palm tree, palm kernel, coconut, castor, rapeseed and others (Aluyor et al., 2008).

     The production statistics of vegetable oils used in the world today has been on the increase between 1961-1963 and 2001-2003. The global trend in production of specific vegetable oils between 1995-1997 and 2001-2003 are highlighted in various literatures (Mielke, 2001).

     Soybean oil is the oil produced in largest quantity and is second only to palm oil in trended oil. It has been reported that the production of soybeans oil and palm increased by 42.8% and 51.3% respectively (FAO, 2010). The major producers of soybeans oil are the United States of America, Brazil, Argentina and China.

     Palm oil now takes the second place in the list of oils produced and will probably overtake soybeans oil in another 10-15 year. It is already the oil traded largest amount accounting for 44% of all oil and fat exports. Malaysia and Indonesia are the major producers with 63% and 31% respectively (Mielke, 2001).

    Rapeseed oil occupies the third position in rank order of production. Sunflower seed oil is fourth. Groundnut oil is produced mainly in China and India, which together account for 71% of total production and usage. Minor quantities of the oil are produced in several African countries (Mielke, 2001)

     World production of oils and fats- currently about 117 million tonnes per annum- comes from vegetable and animal sources. Seventeen commodity oils was recognized, which 13 of them are from vegetable sources (Mielke, 2001).

 1.6 GROUNDNUT OIL (PEANUT OIL)

      Groundnut or peanut oil is a pale yellow mild tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts (Arachis hypogea). Peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) is an important source of edible oil for millions of people living in the semi tropic region. Peanuts make an important contribution to the diet in many countries. Peanut seeds are a good source of protein, lipid and fatty acids for human nutrition (Grosso et al., 1999).

    The major fatty acid component of groundnut oil are oleic acid (46.8% as olein), linoleic acid (33.4% as linolein), and palmitic acid (10.0% as palmitin). The oil also contains some stearic acid, arachidic acid, arachidonic acid and other fatty acids.       

     In Nigeria, groundnut oil is used primarily as a cooking and salad oil. Studies have shown that groundnut oil contains much potassium than sodium and is a good source for calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. It also contains thiamin, vitamin E, selenium, zinc and arginine (Evans et al., 1974). Findings have demonstrated that diets high in groundnut oil are as effective as olive oil in preventing heart disease and are heart healthy than very low fat diets (Hariod, 1990). Groundnut oil is of high quality and can withstand higher temperatures without burning or breaking down. It has neutral flavor and odor. It does not absorb odors from other foods. This makes it the most preferred oil in Northern Nigeria.

      The nutritional values of the groundnut oil are however, affected by the method and period of storage, which consequently affect the acceptability of these oils. In Northern Nigeria, women usually do extraction of groundnut oil locally. The women extract the oil to generate substantial income to support their domestic needs with little or no consideration given to groundnut species or the physicochemical properties of the oils. Most women rely on availability rather than quality.

      Groundnut is the major source of edible oil in Nigeria. It is used mainly for cooking and in the production of soap, margarine and cosmetics. In Nigeria, 1917 tons of peanut are produced annually (Aluyor et al., 2008).

1.7 PALM OIL

     Palm oil is a type of vegetable oil derived from the palm fruit, grown on the

African oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis). They are naturally reddish in color because of high beta-carotene content. Like coconut oil, palm oil is highly saturated. It does not contain cholesterol. It is semi-solid at room temperature and contains several saturated and unsaturated fats in forms of glyceryl laurate (0.1%, saturated), myristate (1%, saturated), palmitate (44%, saturated), stearate (5%, saturated), oleate (39%, monounsaturated), linoleate (10%, polyunsaturated) and alpha-linolenate (0.3%, polyunsaturated) (Cottrell, 1991)  

                  Oil palm trees are of wet African origin, but can also grow in places where heat and rainfall are abundant. Palm oil with peanut oil are the most popular and most used vegetable oils in Nigeria. Almost 90% of palm oil is used as edible products in many applications, such as baking, cooking, margarines, shortenings, cosmetics, body products and cleansing agents.

                     As of 2011, Nigeria was the third-largest producer of palm oil, with approximately 2.3 million hectares under cultivation. Until 1934, Nigeria had been the world’s largest producer. Both small- and large- scale producers participated in the industry (Ayodele, 2010).

1.8 SHEAR NUT OIL

     Shea oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the seeds of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa). It constitutes an important source of fat in food and cosmetics. Although the major raw materials for production of vegetable oil in Nigeria are palm, soya bean and groundnut seeds, existence of indigenous plants that contain oil are well known among rural communities. With increasing awareness of the importance of vegetable oils in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, there is need to focus on indigenous plant species to meet the increasing demand. Vitellaria paradoxa (the shea tree), an indigenous wild tree is one such plant of African savanna parkland. Although the tree is mostly found in the wild, attempts to conserve it on farm have been initiated (Hall et al., 1996). V. paradoxa tree has been described as socially and economically important; and has been included in the priority list of African Genetic Resources by the FAO (FAO, 1977).

     The V. paradoxa nuts/seeds are usually processed into shea oil that constitutes an important source of fat. The shea butter fat can also be used in soap making, cosmetic and traditional medicine in many rural areas (Alander, 2004). Due to its richness in food nutrients, the shea oil has found market as baking fat, margarine and other fatty spreads, confectionery and chocolate industry in Europe and Asia. In the case of West Africa, a variation even within neighboring shea trees has been reported. These variations in physico-chemical composition of vegetable oils have often been attributed to environmental factors such as rainfall, soil fertility, maturation period, agronomic practices and genetic substitution (Sonau et al., 2006). With the increasing global demand for shea oil, characterization of physico-chemical properties of shea oil originating from Nigeria is essential. This study, therefore, investigated the physicochemical composition of shea oil, comparing it with those of peanuts’ oil and palms’ oil.

     

1.9 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

      It has been observed that most people in Nigeria prefer using palm or groundnut oil for both food and industrial applications. Shear nut however, is a good source of edible oil which also contains protein, fatty acids and lipids.

      The research aimed at the investigation of the physico-chemical properties of shear nut oil and comparing these properties with those of peanut and palm oils.

      The comparison however, may ascertain the suitability or otherwise of the shear nut oil for human consumption and industrial application.       

OBJECTIVE

     To analyze for iodine value, acid value, peroxide value, free fatty acid value, saponification value, moisture content and specific gravity for the shear nut oil and compare these values with those analyzed for palm oil and peanut oil.    



 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1.0 Material and method

2.1.1 Sample collection and treatment.

The sample of groundnut oil was collected from Badon Tsallake vegetable market, along B/Kebbi Road Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria. The palm oil sample was sourced from Sokoto Central Market and the shear nut oil was sourced from Ibeto Market, Nasko Local Government of Niger state of Nigeria.

The three samples were all kept in air tight plastic bottles. This is to disallow any interference with any contaminant. The samples were kept in cupboard when not in use.

 

2.1.2 Reagent used.

TABLE 2.1 Chemicals used and their manufacturer

S/N

CHEMICALS

FORMULAR

MANUFACTURER


1

Ethanol (96%)

C2H5OH

Analar  Chem. Ltd


2

Hydrochloric acid

HCl

Analar   Chem. Ltd


3

Glacial acetic acid

CH3COOH

BDH Chemical ltd


4

Phenolphthalein indicator

C20H14O4

BDH Chemical ltd


5

Sodium thiosulphate

Na2S2O3.5H2O

Eagle scientific ltd


6

Potassium hydroxide

KOH

May and Baker


7

Potassium iodide

KI

May and Baker


8

Starch


BDH Chemical lmd


9

Iodine crystal

I2

Kami Lab Ltd


10

Sodium hydroxide

NaOH

May and Baker


11

Chloroform

CH3Cl3

BDH Chemical Ltd


12

Diethyl ether

C2H5-O-C2H5

May and Baker


13

Wij’s reagent

ICl

BDH Chemicals


14

Potassium iodate

KOI3

May and Baker








2.1.3 Equipments Used

TABLE 2.2 Apparatus Used and Manufacturer

S/N

APPARATUS

MANUFACTURER


1

Pipette

Pyrex England


2

Conical flask

Pyrex England


3

Beaker

Pyrex England


4

Measuring Cylinder

Pyrex England


5

Volumetric Flask

Pyrex England


6

Heating Mantle

Simax, Czechoslovakia


7

Weighing Balance

Duran Schott Mainz


8

Retort Stand

Duran Schott Mainz


9

Funnel

Duran Schott Mainz


10

Oven

Simax, Czechoslovakia


11

Water Bath

Simax, Czechoslovakia


12

Titration set up




2.2.0 Methods

2.2.1 Preparation of Reagent

a. 5% HCl:

5ml of concentrated HCl (SG 1.18, 37%) was diluted in distilled water and made to 100ml mark volumetric flask.


b.1% starch indicator:

1g of starch was dissolved in 5ml distilled water and was made up to 100ml mark of volumetric flask with boil water.

c.1% phenolphthalein indicator:

1g of phenolphthalein powder was dissolve in 100ml of ethanol

d.5% ethanol:

5ml of ethanol was diluted in distilled water and was made up to 100ml mark volumetric flask

e. 0.1M NaOH:

4g of solid NaOH was dissolved in distilled water and made of to 1000ml standard volumetric flask

f. 0.5M HCl:

10.59ml of conc. HCl (SG 1.18, 37%)   was dissolved in 100ml distilled water and made up to 250ml.

g. 0.1M ethanolic KOH:

1.4g of KOH was dissolved in 100ml of ethanol and made up to 250ml with ethanol.

h. 0.01M Na₂S2O3.5H2O solution:

2.48g of Na₂S₂O3g Was dissolved in distilled water and make to 1000ml volumetric flask

i. Solvents mixture:

12ml of chloroform was mixed with 18ml glacial acetic acid.

j. Iodine solution: 0.5g of iodine (I2) and 0.82g of KI were dissolved in 200ml of distilled water and made up to 1000ml mark volumetric flask.


k. Saturated potassium iodide solution:

4g potassium iodide was dissolved in 3ml distilled water.

l. 5% KIO3 solution:

5g of potassium iodate (KIO3) crystals were dissolved in distilled water until solution was formed. It was then transferred into a 100cm3 volumetric flask which it was made to the mark with distilled water.


2.2.2 Determination of Saponification Value

Saponification is the chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali (especially the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or oil to make soap). Saponification value is however, the amount of alkali necessary to saponify a definite quantity of oil sample. It is expressed, as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify one gram of the oil sample under specified conditions.

Procedure:

Two gram of the oil sample was weighed into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask, Containing excess alcoholic potassium hydroxide.  A blank was conducted simultaneously where all reagents were added with the exception of the oil sample. The air condenser was connected and the sample boiled gently, but steadily for 45 min. After the flask and condenser have cooled but not sufficiently to forming gel, 1 ml of phenolphthalein indicator was added to the sample and the sample titrated with 0.5M hydrogen chloride (HCl) until the pink color just disappeared and the volume of the HCl used was recorded(Nkafamiya et al, 2012).

The saponification value was calculated using the equation 2.1

Saponification value =    (B – S) x M x W ……………………….2.1

              Mass of the test portion, g


Where S = volume of titrant, ml sample.

B = volume of titrant, ml blank

W = molecular weight of KOH (56.109g/mol)

M = Molarity of KOH

.2.2.3 Determination of Free fatty acid

The Free fatty acid is the percentage by weight of a specified fatty acid (e.g. % oleic acid); High concentrations of free fatty acids are undesirable in crude oils because they result in large losses of the neutral oil during refining. In crude fat, free fatty acids estimate the amount of oil that will be lost during refining steps designed to remove fatty acids (Nkafamiya et al, 2010).

Procedure:

Exactly 2g of the oil sample was weighed into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask using an analytical balance. 20 ml of 95% neutralized ethanol was added to the flask. The solution was heated slightly at 20oC to aid the dissolution of the fat in the alcohol. 2 drops of phenolphthalein solution was added as indicator and the solution becomes yellow. The solution was then titrated with 0.1M sodium hydroxide solution while shaking the solution vigorously. The color of the solution turned pink and at the point when the pink color persisted for 30 seconds was termed the end point. The procedure was repeated three times more (Nkafamiya et al, 2010).

The percentage of free fatty acid (as oleic) in the oil was calculated using the equation 2.2

Free fatty acid (as oleic acid)   =    T   x 282 x M     100%...................2.2

    W x 1000

Where T = Volume (in cm3) of sodium hydroxide used.

282 = Molecular weight of oleic acid.

M = Molarity of sodium hydroxide.

W = Weight of oil used.

100 = Percentage in expression

1000 = conversion factor of gram to mg

2.2.4 Determination of Iodine value

Iodine value is a measure of the unsaturation of fats and oils, and is expressed in terms of the number of centigram of iodine absorbed per gram of the sample (% iodine absorbed) during oxidation, which consumes the double bonds resulting in a reduction in iodine. It is an indicator for double bonding in the molecular structure, which influences the long term stability properties of the oil (important for storage). Oils having high iodine number are polyunsaturated indicating the degree of unsaturation and are desired by oil processors, while a lower iodine number is indicative of lower quality (Frank et al., 1986).

Procedure:

The iodine value was determined according to Official Method (AOCS 1993). 2g was taken into a 500 ml flask. 15ml of tetrachloride was added to the sample and swirled to ensure that the sample was completely dissolved in the Carbon tetrachloride. 25ml of Wijs solution was dispensed into the flask containing the sample and swirled to ensure an intimate mixture. 20ml of 10% potassium iodide (KI) solution added followed by an addition of 150 ml of distilled water. The solution was titrated with 0.1M thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) solution while shaking it constantly and vigorously until the yellow color had almost disappeared. 1.5ml starch indicator was added and the titration continued until the blue-black color just disappeared. A blank was preformed alongside. The iodine value is calculated using the equation 2.3


Iodine value    =  ………………………………2.3

       W

Where S = volume of titrant, ml sample

B = volume of titrant, ml of blank

M = molarity of Na2S2O3 solution

126.9 = Molecular weight of iodine


2.2.5 Determination of Acid Value

Acid value is the number of milligram of potassium hydroxide necessary to neutralize the free acids in one gram of oil sample. The samples that contain virtually no free acids other than fatty acids, the acid value may be directly converted by means of a suitable factor to percent free fatty acids. Where vegetable oils are used as lubrication products, the acid value can affect the properties of the lubrication oil, if larger quantities reach the oil pump (Yussof, 2010).




Procedure

10g of the oil sample was weighed into a flask, 25 ml of 95% alcohol and diethyl ether each was added to the sample in the flask. 1 ml of phenolphthalein was added and the solution mixed thoroughly. Upon complete dissolution, titration was carried out using 0.1M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the sample shaken vigorously while titrating to obtain the first permanent pink color of the same intensity.  A blank was performed along side. The procedure is repeated three times more.(Yussof,2010).

The acid value is calculated using equation 2.4

Acid value =     (A – B) x M   x W……………………………………..2.4

Mass of test portion, g


Where A = volume of titrant, ml sample

B = volume of titrant, ml blank

M = molarity of KOH

W = weight of KOH

2.2.6 Determination of Peroxide value

Peroxide value gives the measure of extent to which an oil sample has undergone primary oxidation (Charkrabarty, 2003), peroxide value is express in term of milliequavalent of active oxygen per kilogram which oxidized by potassium iodide under the condition of the test. It’s the measure of rancidity of oil (Charkrabarty, 2003).



Procedure:

Exactly 1g of potassium iodide (KI) and 20cm3 of solvent mixture (glacial acetic acid: chloroform 2:1 v/v) were added to 1.0g of the oil sample and the mixture was boiled for a minute. The hot solution was poured into a flask containing 20cm3 of 5% potassium iodate solution. Few drops of starch solution was added to the mixture and the latter was titrated with 0.025M Na2S2O3 (Sodium thiosulphate) solution. Blank titration was simultaneously carried out and the same procedure was repeated for 3 times (Otunola et al, 2009).

The peroxide value is determine using the equation 2.5

Peroxide value = (S ­ B) (M) x 1000 ………………………………….2.5

     Mass of test portion, g


Where S = Volume of titrant, ml sample

B = Volume of titrant, ml Blank

M = Molarity of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3)

1000 = Constant value

2.2.7 Moisture content

Moisture content is the measure of water in a material. According to the Food Standards Agency (1991), the moisture content of foods is of great importance for many scientific, technical and economic reasons. The general method for determination of moisture content in fats/ oil is the measurement of loss in weight due to drying at a temperature just above the boiling of water. Thermal drying at (105 and 1100c) in air circulation oven to a constant weight is by far the most common technique used for drying material in the laboratory (Birnin-Yauri and Garba, 2011).

Procedure:

5g of the sample was taken in pre-weighed crucible, it was the transferred in to an air circulation oven operating at 1050c, the crucible was removed at interval of 2hours, placed in desiccator to cool and reweighed. The later process was repeated until a constant weight is obtained. The experiment was carried out in triplicate and the mean moisture content was recorded in percentage (Birnin-Yauri et al, 2011). Moisture content is calculated using the equation 2.6


Moisture content =      Weight due to loss in water       x   100…….........2.6

Weight of the sample before drying


2.2.8 Determination of Specific gravity

Relative density describes the density of oil in relation to equal density of water at a particular temperature.

Procedure:

Sodium hydroxide was used to clean the measuring cylinder used after which it was rinsed with distilled water to remove any form of impurities. It was then rinsed with methylated spirit, dried and weighed as W1. 10ml of water was added into the cylinder and re-weighed as W2. The excess water which appears at the side of the cylinder was wiped off. The same procedure was repeated for oil and the weight was recorded as W3. The relative density was determined using the formulae below (Otunola et al, 2009).

Relative density= W3 – W1/ W2 – W1………………… 2.7 

Where   W1= weight of empty cylinder

   W2= weight of cylinder + water

   W3= weight of cylinder + oil

      












CHAPTER THREE

3.1 RESULTS

The table below provides the summary of the physico-chemical analysis of the groundnut oil (sample A), shear nut oil (sample B) and palm oil (sample C). 

Parameters

 (peanut oil) 

 (shear oil)

 (palm oil)


Saponification value (mgKOH/g) 

172±1.40

164.09± 1.41

143.99± 1.62


Free fatty acid (%)

1.26± 0.49

1.45± 0.06

0.62± 0.04


Iodine value (mgI2/g) 

71.90±0.34

33.84± 0.33

57.11


Acid value (mg/KOH/g) 

13.09± 0.65

3.37± 0.56

21.13± 0.32


Peroxide value (meq/kg)

8.33± 3.55

3.33± 1.44

13.33± 2.89


Moisture content (%)

1.00

0.50

1.20


Specific gravity

0.89

0.89

0.88


 

    Saponification can be described as the alkali hydrolysis of fatty acid ester (triglycerides) with alkali to yield glycerol and soap. The type of alkali employed depends on the kinds of soap desired as it is known that sodium hydroxide is used to produce bathing soap while potassium hydroxide is used in making washing soap.

    Saponification value on the other hand determines the molecular weight of triglycerides present in the oil to undergo the aforesaid reaction. It is inversely proportional to the weight of fatty acid present in the oil (Birnin-Yauri and Garba, 2011). Oils containing low saponification value cannot be used for manufacturing soap, while those having considerably high saponification values can be used in soap manufacture. 

    From the results, it could be noted that all the three oils have considerable high saponification values: Groundnut oil-; Shear nut oil-; Palm oil-. They can be used for the production of soap and other industrial applications (Amoo et al, 2004).

    Free fatty acid value can be described as the measure of the amount of free fatty acid in the oil which is as a result of hydrolysis of triglycerides yielding free fatty acids and glycerol. 

    From the result presented, it should be noted that shear nut oil has the highest % FFA value with 1.45± 0.06 than both groundnut and palm oils which are having 1.26± 0.49 and 0.62± 0.04 respectively. This means that shear nut oil has freer fatty acid level than both groundnut and palm oils.     

         Iodine value can be described as the measure of proportion of unsaturated fatty acid present in oil. Oils having higher iodine value oxidize whereas those having low iodine value do not undergo oxidation which might be as a result of metals present in them.

     High iodine valued oil contain automatically high content of unsaturated fatty acids which show tendency of the oil to go into rancidity (Joseph, 1977). Rancidity can be described as the situation whereby foods rich in oils and fat spoil when they are exposed to too much oxygen in air.

     From the results, it should be inferred that groundnut oil has the considerably highest iodine value (71.91± 9.69), followed by palm oil (57.11) and lastly shear nut oil with 33.84 ± 3.66, which of course classify all of them as non-drying oils because they are not up to 100. Non-drying oils are oils that are liquid at room temperature which are incapable of forming elastic films even after exposure to air. This means that they can all be used to manufacture margarine.   

     Acid value is the measure or degree of acid present in oil. The acid present in oil is a function of the hydrolysis of fatty acid ester producing glycerol and free fatty acid. Where vegetable oils are used as lubrication products, the acid value can affect the properties of the lubrication oil, if larger quantities reach the oil sump (Yussof, 2010). 

     Acid value is considered as a measure of edibility of oil and its suitability to be used to manufacture paint and soap (Akubugwo, et al. 2007). When two or more oil samples are considered for the manufacture of soap or paint, the ones with higher acid values are chosen.

     Taking a comparative look at the results, it can be noted that palm oil has by far the highest acid value (21.13± 0.32), followed by groundnut oil (13.09± 0.65) and lastly shear nut oil with 3.37± 0.56. This depicts that palm oil is the best choice when it comes to the manufacture of soaps or paints. Groundnut oil can also be used to manufacture soap. Shear nut oil can also be used but it is the last option when comparing the three oils. 

     Muibat et al, in 2007 opined that oils containing low acid value are recommended for cooking. This makes shear nut oil a good choice for cooking.

     Peroxide value gives the measure of extent to which an oil sample has undergone primary oxidation (Charkrabarty, 2003). It is used to measure the oxidative capacity of oil. Rancidity occur in oil when heat, metals or other catalysts cause unsaturated oil molecules to be converted to free radicals which can easily be oxidized to yield hydroxyl peroxide and organic compounds like aldehydes, ketones or acids. These compounds are responsible for the production of unfavourable odour and flavour characteristic of fats and fat containing materials (Aluyor et al, 2008). 

     Akubugwo et al., (2007) asserted that peroxide value ranging between 20-40 meq/kg results into rancid taste, while those below 20 do not. Considering the results, all three oils have peroxide values less than 20 (groundnut oil; 8.33±3.55, shear nut oil; 3.33±1.44 and palm oil; 13.33±2.89. Meaning that, all three oils can easily resist rancidity.    

         Moisture content, a physical property is the measure of water in a material. According to the Food Standards Agency (1991), the moisture content of foods is of great importance for many scientific, technical and economic reasons. 

    From the results, it is observed that groundnut oil has 1.00% moisture content, shear nut oil has 0.50% moisture content and palm oil has the highest moisture content of 1.20%. These variations may be as a result of storage.

         Specific gravity otherwise known as relative density is described as the density of oil compared to the density of equal volume of water at a given temperature.

     At room temperature (25°C), it was noticed that groundnut and shear nut oils both have specific gravity of 0.89, while palm oil has a specific gravity of 0.88. There seems to be no significant differences in the specific gravities of all three samples. For these oils to have specific gravities less than 1 means that they will all flow on water.    

           

CHAPTER FOUR

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

4.1 CONCLUSION

     The physico-chemical analysis carried out in this research has exposed the scope of the researcher to the concept of reagent preparation and the uses of various equipments in the chemistry laboratory. 

     It also has widened the knowledge of the researcher on vegetable oils and their applications asides their functions as a source of oleochemicals. 

    It has also justified the suitability of shear nut oil for consumption and industrial applications.

    Firstly, all three samples have low percentage free fatty acids, making them useful for cooking and frying.

    Secondly, even though all three samples have considerable low peroxide values, shear nut oil has the lowest value therefore indicating that it has the best chance of resisting rancidity.

    Thirdly, shear nut oil has a high saponification value like both palm and groundnut oils do. Therefore it can also be used in the production of soap.

    Fourthly, palm oil and groundnut oil have higher acid values (21.13±0.32 and 13.09±0.65 respectively) than shear nut (3.37±0.56). Their high values make them suitable for the manufacture of oil paints and vanishes. 

    Finally, all three oils can be classified as non-drying oils and can be used in the manufacture of margarine because of their considerable low iodine value.


 RECOMMENDATIONS

With concordance to this research, the following were recommended;

That shear nut oil due to its chemical composition, be used as edible oil, cosmetics, lubricant and for soap making.

That shear nut should be produced in large quantity due to its potential and significance as raw material for cosmetics, soap, food processing and in pharmaceuticals.

That further analysis should be done to ascertain some physico-chemical properties that will provide more insight on the basis upon which the three oil samples can be distinguished.

That research like this should be done on other oils of vegetable origin so as to ascertain their suitability or otherwise for human consumption and industrial applications.











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   APPENDIX I

Summary of results of analyses

Parameters

  (peanut oil) 

  (shear oil)

 (palm oil)


Saponification value (mgKOH/g) 

172±1.40

164.09± 1.41

143.99± 1.62


Free fatty acid (%)

1.26± 0.49

1.45± 0.06

0.62± 0.04


Iodine value (mgI2/g) 

71.91± 9.69

33.84± 3.66

57.11


Acid value (mg/KOH/g) 

13.09± 0.65

3.37± 0.56

21.13± 0.32


Peroxide value (meq/kg)

8.33± 3.55

3.33± 1.44

13.33± 2.89


Moisture content (%)

1.00

0.50

1.20


Specific gravity

0.89

0.89

0.88



N.B

Sample A is Groundnut oil

Sample B is Shear nut oil

Sample C is Palm oil










              APPENDIX II

PRACTICAL REPORT

Saponification value:

Blank=16.10

A

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

3.70

3.90

3.80


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

0.00


Volume of HCl used

3.70

3.90

3.80



Average titre value (cm3) = 3.70+3.90+3.80   = 3.80  

3

S.V= (B-S) x M x Molar mass of KOH

W

1st value (3.70)          2nd value (3.90) 3rd value (3.80)

S.V= (16.10-3.70) x 0.5 x 56.1        (16.10-3.90) x 0.5 x 56.1      (16.1-3.80) x 0.5 x 56.1

      2 2 2

     =173.91 mgKOH/g =171.11 mgKOH/g       =172.51 mgKOH/g


Mean S.V= 173.91+171.11+172.51

3

     =172.51mgKOH/g

Standard Deviation= 1.40

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=172±1.40 mgKOH/g  




B

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

4.40

4.50

4.30


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

0.00


Volume of HCl used

4.40

4.50

4.30



Average titre value (cm3) = 4.40+4.50+4.30   = 4.40  

3

S.V= (B-S) x M x Molar mass of KOH

W

1st value (4.40)          2nd value (4.50) 3rd value (4.30)

S.V= (16.10-4.40) x 0.5 x 56.1        (16.10-4.50) x 0.5 x 56.1      (16.1-4.30) x 0.5 x 56.1

      2 2 2

     =164.09 mgKOH/g =162.69 mgKOH/g       =165.50 mgKOH/g


Mean S.V= 164.09+162.69+165.50

3

     =164.09mgKOH/g

Standard Deviation= 1.41

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=164.09±1.41 mgKOH/g


C

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

5.90

5.70

5.90


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

0.00


Volume of HCl used

5.90

5.70

4.90





Average titre value (cm3) = 5.90+5.70+5.90   = 5.83  

3

S.V= (B-S) x M x Molar mass of KOH

W

1st value (5.90)          2nd value (5.70) 3rd value (5.90)

S.V= (16.10-5.90) x 0.5 x 56.1        (16.10-5.80) x 0.5 x 56.1      (16.1-5.90) x 0.5 x 56.1

      2 2 2

     =143.06 mgKOH/g =145.86 mgKOH/g       =143.06 mgKOH/g


Mean S.V= 143.06+145.86+143.06

3

     =143.99mgKOH/g

Standard Deviation= 1.62

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=143.99±1.62 mgKOH/g

Free fatty acid value:

A

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

2.10

2.30

2.30


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

0.00


Vol. of NaOH used

2.10

2.30

2.30



Average titre value= 2.10+2.30+2.30   = 2.23  

3

%FFA= T x 282 x M x 100

W x 1000


1st value (2.10)          2nd value (2.30) 3rd value (2.30)

%FFA= 2.10 x 282 x 0.1 x 100        2.30 x 282 x 0.1 x 100        2.30 x 282 x 0.1 x100

5 x 1000 5 x 1000     5 x 1000


=1.18% =1.30%       =1.30%

Average % FFA= 1.18+1.30+1.30

      3

    = 1.26

Standard Deviation= 0.49

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=1.26±0.49% 

B

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

2.60

2.40

2.70


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

0.00


Vol. of NaOH used

2.60

2.40

2.70



Average titre value= 2.60+2.40+2.70   = 2.57  

3

%FFA= T x 282 x M x 100

W x 1000


1st value (2.60)          2nd value (2.40) 3rd value (2.70)

%FFA= 2.60 x 282 x 0.1 x 100        2.40 x 282 x 0.1 x 100        2.70 x 282 x 0.1 x100

5 x 1000 5 x 1000     5 x 1000


=1.47% =1.35%       =1.52%

Average % FFA= 1.47+1.35+1.52

      3

    = .1.45

Standard Deviation= 0.06

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=1.45±0.06% 

C

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

1.00

1.10

1.20


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

0.00


Vol. of NaOH used

1.00

1.10

1.20



Average titre value= 1.00+1.10+1.20   = 1.10.  

3

%FFA= T x 282 x M x 100

W x 1000


1st value (1.00)          2nd value (1.10) 3rd value (1.20)

%FFA= 1.00 x 282 x 0.1 x 100        1.10 x 282 x 0.1 x 100        1.20 x 282 x 0.1 x100

5 x 1000 5 x 1000     5 x 1000


=0.56% =0.62%       =0.68%

Average % FFA= 0.56+0.62+0.68

      3

    = 0.62

Standard Deviation= 0.04

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=0.62±0.04% 


Peroxide value:

Blank= 0.8

A

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

1.30

1.00

1.10


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

0.00


Vol. of Na2S2O3

1.30

1.00

1.10



Average titre value= 1.30+1.00+1.10   = 1.13.  

3

P.V=(S-B) x M x 1000

         W

1st value (1.30)          2nd value (1.00) 3rd value (1.10)

P.V= (1.3-0.8) x 0.025 x 1000 (1.00-0.8) x 0.025 x 1000    (1.10-0.8) x 0.025 x 1000

    1 1 1

      =12.5meq/kg =5.00 meq/kg    =7.50 meq/kg

Average P.V= 12.50+5.00+7.50

    3

          =8.33

Standard Deviation= 3.55

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=8.33±3.55 meq/kg 

     B

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

0.90

1.00

0.90


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

0.00


Vol. of Na2S2O3 

0.90

1.00

0.90



Average titre value= 0.90+1.00+0.90   = 0.93.  

3

P.V=(S-B) x M x 1000

         W

1st value (0.90)          2nd value (1.00) 3rd value (0.90)

P.V= (0.90-0.8) x 0.025 x 1000 (1.00-0.8) x 0.025 x 1000    (0.90-0.8) x 0.025 x 1000

    1 1 1

      =2.50meq/kg =5.00 meq/kg    =2.50 meq/kg

Average P.V= 2.50+5.00+2.50 = 3.33

    3

Standard Deviation= 1.44

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=3.33±1.44 meq/kg 

C

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

1.40

1.40

1.20


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

0.00


Vol. of Na2S2O3 

1.40

1.40

1.20



Average titre value= 1.40+1.40+1.20   = 1.33.  

3

P.V=(S-B) x M x 1000

         W

1st value (1.40)          2nd value (1.40) 3rd value (1.20)

P.V= (1.40-0.8) x 0.025 x 1000 (1.40-0.8) x 0.025 x 1000    (1.20-0.8) x 0.025 x 1000

    1 1 1

      =15.00meq/kg =10.00 meq/kg    =15.00 meq/kg

Average P.V= 15.00+10.00+15.00 = 13.33

    3

Standard Deviation= 2.89

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=13.33±2.89 meq/kg 

Acid value: 

A

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

2.40

4.60

7.00


Initial Volume

0.00

2.40

4.60


Vol. of KOH

2.40

2.20

2.40



Average titre value= 2.40+2.20+2.40   = 2.33.  

3

A.V= M x V x 56.1

      W 


1st value (2.40)          2nd value (2.20) 3rd value (2.40)

Av= 0.1 x 2.40 x 56.1        0.1 x 2.20 x 56.1 0.1 x 2.4 x 56.1

1       1 1

    =13.46 mg/KOH/g =12.34 mg/KOH/g =13.46 mg/KOH/g

Average A.V= 13.46+12.34+13.46 = 13.09

    3

Standard Deviation= 0.65

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=13.09±0.65 mg/KOH/g  

B

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

0.50

1.20

1.80


Initial Volume

0.00

0.50

1.20


Vol. of KOH

0.50

0.70

0.60



Average titre value= 0.50+0.70+0.60   = 0.60

3

A.V= M x V x 56.1

      W 


1st value (0.50)          2nd value (0.70) 3rd value (0.60)

Av= 0.1 x 0.50 x 56.1        0.1 x 0.70 x 56.1 0.1 x 0.60 x 56.1

1       1 1

    =2.81 mg/KOH/g =3.93 mg/KOH/g =3.37 mg/KOH/g

Average A.V= 2.81+3.93+3.37 =3.37

    3

Standard Deviation= 0.56

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=3.37±0.56 mg/KOH/g

  C

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

3.80

3.80

7.50


Initial Volume

0.00

0.00

3.80


Vol. of KOH

3.80

3.80

3.70


Average titre value= 3.80+3.80+3.70   = 3.77

3

A.V= M x V x 56.1

      W 


1st value (3.80)          2nd value (3.80) 3rd value (3.70)

Av= 0.1 x 3.80 x 56.1        0.1 x 3.80 x 56.1 0.1 x 3.70 x 56.1

1       1 1

    =21.32 mg/KOH/g =21.32 mg/KOH/g =20.76 mg/KOH/g

Average A.V= 21.32+21.32+20.76 =21.13

    3

Standard Deviation= 0.32

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=21.13±0.32 mg/KOH/g

Iodine value:

Blank=22.50

A

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

11.20

11.10

11.20


Initial Volume

  0.00

  0.00

  0.00


Vol. of Na2S2O3

11.20

11.10

11.20



Average titre value= 11.20+11.10+11.20   = 11.17

3

I.V= (B-S) x M x 126.9

      W

1st value (11.20)          2nd value (11.10) 3rd value (11.20)     = (22.5-11.20) x 0.1x126.9      (22.50-11.10) x0.1x126.9        (22.50-11.20) x 0.1 x 126.9

2     2 2

=71.69 mgI2/g        =72.33 mgI2/g    =71.69 mgI2/g

Average I.V= 71.69+72.33+71.69 =71.90

    3

Standard Deviation= 0.34

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=71.90±0.34 mgI2/g

B

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

17.20

17.10

17.20


Initial Volume

  0.00

  0.00

  0.00


Vol. of Na2S2O3

17.20

17.10

17.20



 Average titre value= 17.20+17.10+17.20   = 17.17

3

I.V= (B-S) x M x 126.9

      W

1st value (17.20)          2nd value (17.10) 3rd value (17.20)     = (22.5-17.20) x 0.1x126.9      (22.50-17.10) x0.1x126.9        (22.50-17.20) x 0.1 x 126.9

2     2 2

=33.63 mgI2/g        =34.26 mgI2/g    =33.63 mgI2/g

Average I.V= 33.63+34.26+33.63 =33.84

    3

Standard Deviation= 0.33

True mean (µ) = mean±s.d 

=33.84±0.34 mgI2/g


C

Burette reading

              I (cm3)

               II (cm3)

              III (cm3)


Final volume

13.50

13.50

13.50


Initial Volume

  0.00

  0.00

  0.00


Vol. of Na2S2O3

13.50

13.50

13.50



Average titre value= 13.50+13.50+13.50   = 13.50

3

I.V= (B-S) x M x 126.9

      W

1st value (13.50)          2nd value (13.50) 3rd value (13.50)     = (22.5-18.00) x 0.1x126.9      (22.50-18.00) x0.1x126.9        (22.50-18.00) x 0.1 x 126.9

2     2 2

=57.11 mgI2/g        =57.11 mgI2/g    =57.11 mgI2/g

Average I.V= 57.11+57.11+57.11 =57.11

    3

Iodine value=57.11 mgI2/g 


Specific gravity:

A

1st measurement:

Weight of empty cylinder (W1) = 16.73g

Weight of cylinder + water (W2) = 26.63g

Weight of cylinder + oil (W3) = 25.49g

S.G= W3- W1 = 25.49-16.73

         W2- W1    26.63- 16.73

      =0.89g

2nd measurement:

Weight of empty cylinder (W1) = 16.73g

Weight of cylinder + water (W2) = 26.63g

Weight of cylinder + oil (W3) = 25.50g

S.G= W3- W1 = 25.50-16.73

         W2- W1    26.63- 16.73

      =0.89g

3rd measurement:

Weight of empty cylinder (W1) = 16.73g

Weight of cylinder + water (W2) = 26.63g

Weight of cylinder + oil (W3) = 25.49g

S.G= W3- W1 = 25.49-16.73

         W2- W1    26.63- 16.73

      =0.89g

Mean S.G= 0.89+0.89+0.89

         3

      =0.89g


B

1st measurement:

Weight of empty cylinder (W1) = 16.83g

Weight of cylinder + water (W2) = 26.51g

Weight of cylinder + oil (W3) = 25.49g

S.G= W3- W1 = 25.49-16.83

         W2- W1    26.51- 16.83

      =0.89g


2nd measurement:

Weight of empty cylinder (W1) = 16.83g

Weight of cylinder + water (W2) = 26.51g

Weight of cylinder + oil (W3) = 25.50g

S.G= W3- W1 = 25.50-16.83

         W2- W1    26.51- 16.83

      =0.89g

3rd measurement:

Weight of empty cylinder (W1) = 16.83g

Weight of cylinder + water (W2) = 26.51g

Weight of cylinder + oil (W3) = 25.49g

S.G= W3- W1 = 25.49-16.83

         W2- W1    26.51- 16.83

      =0.89g

Mean S.G= 0.89+0.89+0.89

         3

      =0.89g


     C

1st measurement:

Weight of empty cylinder (W1) = 16.75g

Weight of cylinder + water (W2) = 26.65g

Weight of cylinder + oil (W3) = 25.49g

S.G= W3- W1 = 25.49-16.75

         W2- W1    26.65- 16.75

      

=0.88g

2nd measurement:

Weight of empty cylinder (W1) = 16.75g

Weight of cylinder + water (W2) = 26.65g

Weight of cylinder + oil (W3) = 25.50g

S.G= W3- W1 = 25.50-16.75

         W2- W1    26.65- 16.75

      =0.88g

3rd measurement:

Weight of empty cylinder (W1) = 16.75g

Weight of cylinder + water (W2) = 26.65g

Weight of cylinder + oil (W3) = 25.49g

S.G= W3- W1 = 25.49-16.75

         W2- W1    26.65- 16.75

     =0.88g

Mean S.G= 0.88+0.88+0.88

         3

     =0.88g


Moisture content:

A

Time (hours)

        0

       3

        4

       5


Weight (g)

69.18

69.16

69.14

69.14



Weight of empty crucible= 59.25.g

Weight of crucible + oil= 69.25g

Weight of oil left= 69.25-59.25

    =10.00g

Moisture content= wt of oil before drying- wt after drying

     = (10.00-9.90) g

     = 0.10g

% moisture content= 0.10 x 100

   10

=1.00%


B

Time (hours)

        0

       3

        4

       5


Weight (g)

79.06

79.05

79.03

79.03



Weight of empty crucible= 69.09g

Weight of crucible + oil= 79.09g

Weight of oil left= 79.09-69.09

    =10.00g

 

Moisture content= wt of oil before drying- wt after drying

     = (10.00-9.95) g

     = 0.05

% moisture content= 0.05 x 100

    10

         =0.5%


C

Time (hours)

        0

       3

        4

       5


Weight (g)

72.47

72.44

72.43

72.43



Weight of empty crucible= 62.56g

Weight of crucible + oil= 72.56g

Weight of oil left= 72.56-62.56

    =10.00g

 

Moisture content= wt of oil before drying- wt after drying

     = (10.00-9.88) g

     = 0.12

% moisture content= 0.12 x 100

   10

         =1.2%

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