PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING BIOLOGY IN URBAN AND RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF KEBBI STATE

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING BIOLOGY IN URBAN AND RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF KEBBI STATE






TABLES OF CONTENTS

Title page…………………………………………………………………………………………i

Certification………………………………………………………………………………………ii

Dedication………………………………………………………………………………………...iii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………...……...iv

Tables of content…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......v

List of tables………………………………………………………………………………………vi

Abstract………………….……………………………………………………………………….vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 

background to the study ……………………………………………………………………1

statement of the problems……………………………………………………………………..2

objectives of the study………………………………………………………………………...3

research questions……………………………………………………………………………..4

significance of the study………………………………………………………………………5

scope and delimitation………………………………………………..………………………5

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………7

2.2 Teaching science in Nigerian secondary schools……………………………………………8

2.3 the concept of Biology………………………………………………………………………10

2.4 Teaching Biology in African secondary schools……………………………………………14

2.5 Teaching Biology in Nigerian secondary schools…………………………………………...16

2.6 Teaching Biology in Kebbi state secondary schools………………………………………...16

2.7 Parental attitude towards learning Biology…………………………………………………..19

2.8 Students attitude toward learning biology…………………………………………………21

2.9 Teachers attitude towards learning Biology…………………………………………………24

2.10 Related research works……………………………………………………………………27

2.11 Uniqueness of the study……………………………………………………………………28

 CHAPTER THREE: RESEACH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………31

3.2 Research design …………………………………………………………………………31

3.3 Population of the study………………………………………………………………………31

3.4 Sample and sampling techniques……………………………………………………………32

3.4.1 Number of sampled school, students and teachers…………………………………………………………………32 

3.5 Research instruments………………………………………………………………………33 

3.6 Validity of the research instrument…………………………………………………………36

3.7 Pilot study…………………………………………………………………………………36

3.8 Reliability of the instrument…………………………………………………………………36

3.9 Administration of the instruments…………………………………………………………37

3.10 Procedure for data analysis…………………………………………………………………37

 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 

4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………38

4.2 Analysis of teachers responses………………………………………………………………38

4.3 Summary of the major findings……………………………………………………………43

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………45

5.2 Summary……………………………………………………………………………………45

5.3 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………47

5.4 Summary of the major findings……………………………………………………………47

5.5 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………48

5.6 Limitations to the study……………………………………………………………………48

5.7 Suggestion for further researches……………………………………………………………48

Appendix A………………………………………………………………………………………50

Appendix B………………………………………………………………………………………52

Appendix C………………………………………………………………………………………54

References…………………….…………………………………………………………………56











LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.4.1: Number of sampled schools, students, and teachers

Table4.2.1: teachers difficulties in understanding 

Table 4.2.2: Inavailability of Biology laboratory 

Table 4.2.3: Number of teachers by qualification

Table 4.2.4 Teaching experiences of biology teachers 

Table 4.2.5: teachers responses to student having biology textbooks

Table 4.2.6: Teachers response on laboratory facilities 

Table 4.2.7: Comparison of  teachers from urban and rural secondary schools on teaching technique

   










CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The importance of Biology is unestimatable, it embraces every aspect of human life at home, in the school, in the farm, on the street and in the community. It is because of this importance and crucial contributions that Biology has been placed in the school curriculum.

This assertion is borne-out of the understanding that biology is the basis and foundation upon which the human life and other living and non-living things are been known.

 The Macmilan English dictionary for advanced learners (2007) defined Biology as the scientific study of living things or the natural processes that control how a living lives. Mc Dowell (1969) argue that Biology has not restricted in the scientific study of plant only but he further suggested that Biology comprises the study of life and the environment where life inhabit, what affect life and environment and in addition how to control them.

According to Clay (1962) Biology has been defined as the scientific study of flora and fauna

(plants and animals respectively), therefore from the above definitions it is clear that the knowledge of Biology is very essential for the survival of man, this is because it provides proper health knowledge, it is (Biology) one of the enjoyable subject enjoyed by the students in the schools. The students are always happy to have Biology lesson as these reflect their socio-cultural knowledge of the health education of the body and how their body develops and what effect them. From these it is (Biology) recognised as the subject of study in secondary schools. According to Jega, Shehu, Haruna and Musa (1991) in their research work on the problems teaching and learning science in rural and urban secondary schools of Kebbi state, be said

the responsibility or providing scientific experiences including biological ones should not be left on the hand of institution of learning only but rather it is collective effort and participation from the parents, guardians, private or Banizations, government and the general public Additionally and more importantly according to Azenne (1989) the science of biology essential in the field of agriculture with the study of these subjects, the physiology and conditions necessary tor 1deal growth of crops and plants are well known, this world enhance in no small scale to impose food supply and cash crop yield so as to generate more revenue for farmers and tor the country at large, He also suggest that the study of genetic is als0 important in animals and plants breeding in producing particular or selected character and characteristics of both plants and animals. 

Furthermore according to a research conducted by Habibu, Sani, and Umar (1988) on the problems of teaching biology in urban secondary schools of Zamfara state, Biology applications can be seen in some industries that are involve in food and beverage processing 1n some factories for examples, the Cadbury Nigerian Limited, Cocoa Industry Limited, Sweet Manufacture Limited and West African Confectionaries Limited to mention but a few, are involve in processing seed crops like cocoa, kernel, orange juice, pineapple, e.t.c. they also stated that with the aspect of biological experiences and brewery industries where fermentation is involve.

1.2 Statement of the Problems

Biology as a subject in the school curriculum has received great recognition as an important aspects of general education process. Scientist believed that Biology provides experiences that enhance the development of life, knowledge, attitude and behaviors tor the benefits of both the individual and society. 

The major concern or the main aim of these study is to find out the problems associated with teaching and learning Biology in some selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state with a view to find out the possible and relevant solutions or prospects to such problems in order to provide a good atmospheric condition of teaching and learning biology such secondary schools. 

This research work is also carried out in order to examine and determine teachers and students attitude, desire, aspirate interest, love, and need to the Biology and in addition to identify the factors that affect the teaching and learning Biology in some selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state, 

Furthermore this research project is carried out with a view to find out and identifies teachers commitment, effectiveness, and competence to their work as Biology teachers and also to look on the various teaching methods they follow in the teaching and learning process of biological experiences and activities in the selected studied urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state. Similarly this research work is carried out with a view to determine and examine the availability and adequacy of facilities and equipments in the laboratories (Biology laboratories) in selected secondary schools of Kebbi state both urban and rural, and also to

identify how often students are being supervised from the Ministry of Education and or science and Technical education Board. 

Lastly this research work will touch on the identification and determination of the students-teachers ratio in the selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state, and it will also focus on the determination of the administrative set-up of studied secondary school in both urban and rural areas of Kebbi state which will provides a very conducive and atmospheric condition of teaching and learning Biology in the hand before teachers and learners respectively.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to assess critically the extent and nature of the problems and prospects of teaching and learning Biology in both rural and urban secondary schools of Kebbi state with the following objectives.

 To examine the problems associated with teaching and learning Biology in some

            selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state.

To examine the effective and efficiency of Biology teachers in selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state.

 To examine availability and adequacy of facilities and equipments in the school    laboratories of the selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state.

To compare and contrast the problem and prospects of teaching and learning Biology in the selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state.

1.4 Research Questions 

To facilitate the investigation of the problems of this study, the following questions are    posed:-

Are there problems associated with teaching and learning Biology in tune urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state?

 Are teachers effective and efficient in carrying out their task as Biology teachers the selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state?

 Are there available and adequate facilities and equipments in the selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state?

Are there any comparison or contrastive on the problems and prospects of teaching Biology in the selected urban and rural secondary schools experiences of Kebbi state?

1.5 Significance of the Study.

Any venture in to problem of teaching and learning is a step further in the advancement of education; therefore this study is expected to be of help to the Biology teachers in improving teaching and learning situation in secondary schools. It is also hoped that it would motivate them to be creative and more interested in Biology teaching. In addition, it is also hoped that this study would help the school administrators and the policy makers in Kebbi state and the federation at large to improve their services to the school.

Lastly Biology is related to other science subjects and none of the sciences can be taught in isolation and as a result, there is need for every science students to have knowledge of Biology. Also the relationship of Biology to health science has been found to motivate student generally to learn something about the composition, arrangement and functioning of their body and that of the other organisms in their environment.

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

A look at the title of this work reveals that this study is confined to Kebbi state therefore this research is limited within the boundaries of secondary schools in the Kebbi metropolis and other secondary schools in the rural areas of Kebbi state which include Yauri Local Government Area Gwandu Local Government Area, Dakingari Local Government Area, Argungu Local Government Area, as well as Jega Local Government Area of Kebbi state.

This research study is also limited only to the Biology students in senior secondary school (S.S.1), senior secondary school two (S.S.2), and senior secondary school three (S.S.3) 

in the Kebbi metropolis and the above stated or mentioned rural areas of Kebbi state.

Furthermore this research Study is only limited with in Biology teachers in the Kebbi metropolis and the above stated rural areas of Kebbi state. The research questions of this research study is only limited to questionnaire, distribute to the Biology teachers of secondary schools of Kebbi metropolis and the above stated or mentioned rural areas of Kebbi state. 

Additionally, the short coming we experience in this research study include unrecognized Biology textbooks especially in the schools in rural secondary schools of Kebbi state, shortage of Biology textbooks, lack of maximum participation of students to Biology as a discipline or subject as well as financial constraints in transportation to and from the above studied rural area of Kebbi state which cost us a huge amount of resources.







CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

In all nations of the world (Nigeria inclusive) science is given first class attention due numerous benefits deride from it Clay, (1962). Science equips students with knowledge areas such as drugs, diseases, pollution, food, chemicals etc which when applied to the society improve man standard of living. Despite the importance of science to our society, the choice and interest of students are influenced by several factors and variables. This chapter is organized into the following sections.

Teaching science in Nigerian secondary schools

The concept of Biology

Teaching Biology in African secondary schools

Teaching Biology in Nigerian secondary schools

Teaching Biology in Kebbi state secondary schools

Parental attitude towards learning Biology

Student's attitude toward learning Biology

Teacher's attitude toward teaching Biology

Related research works

Uniqueness of the study




2.2 Teaching Science in Nigerian Secondary Schools

The West African examination council (WAEC) contacted the science teachers association of Nigeria (STAN) in the year 1968 for the purpose of improving (WAECS) science syllabus.

Subject curriculum development the committees were therefore set up to consider the changing needs of Nigerian pupils and international trends in the respective subject drawing on the teaching. The committees were working on separate subjects such as Biology, physics chemistry e.t.c. The result of their deliberation was documented in (STAN) curriculum development newsletter. This gives birth to the Nigerian integrated science project (NISP) which marked the beginning of integrated science teaching and learning in Nigeria. (1970), curriculum newsletter stipulated that the use of integrating principles in Science produce a course (integral science) which is relevant to students need and experience, stress fundamental unity of science, lays adequate foundation for subsequent specialist study, and art cultural dimension to science education (STAN, 1968).

 Sets of material comprising pupils textbooks, pupils workbook, and teachers guide were published in 2972. 1o further promote Nigerian integrated science project (NISP), between 1978 and 1980 STAN carried out an extensive revision of project in line with new national policy on education which stipulates that, students should spend three (3) years in junior secondary school. This educational system is popularly called 6.3.3.4 system, that is the child spend 6 years in primary school, 3 years in junior secondary school, 3 years in senior secondary school, 4 years in university, this development in the education system made the federal ministry of education to publish the core curriculum for integrated science spelling out what is to be covered in each year (Rabi, 2009).

 Carlisle (2003), report that increasing the amount of practical, investigation work in science particularly when children are using information and communication technology (ICT) had marked led positive effect on enjoyment of teaching and learning science. In Nigeria there is lack of motivation, funding, infrastructural facilities, and learning materials, the country also lack reliable data for policy makers and for the planning of educational program, the problems of educational deformities remain unresolved. In this, it has been reported by Muhammadu, (2009), hat certain cultural, social and religious consideration have put some special groups act disadvantage in regard to participation in formal education particularity in science and technology. 1t also observes teachers supplied at secondary schools level are still less than adequate that is i.e the teachers and students ratio is still very poor. And also it was noted that many science teachers are still unknowledgeable about the goals and objectives or science teaching in Nigeria, In recent years, the effort of science education have been directed at understanding the nature of learning science at secondary school level with a view to provide pupils with attitude in science as a sound foundation for further work in science and making others scientifically literate (Balogun, 2005).

In a paper presented by Oyenneyim and Balogun (2005) who said "curriculum reform within the last decade in the learning and mastery of fundamental structure of subject, if through learned and mastered facilitate problems solving strategies that are peculiar to the subject or discipline and also transfer of information from the memory when the learner is faced with novel situation they also explain that "science structural concept refer to types of law, principle, and generalization that could be commonly referred to as scientific concept.

Anderson (2000), made mention that "the role of the teacher centered on the process selecting effective instructional material". According to him, the techniques of teaching make the following demand on the teachers: 

Planning to influence directly or indirectly the learning process

 Teaching the subject matter to meet the need and interest of each individual

 Arranging a variety of media including books, lecture note, home work, visual aids

discussion and laboratory exercise.

The science teachers association of Nigeria (STAN) concept of teaching science is purely based on activities of teachers and students to perform teaching style is actively oriented, guide line on how to do experiments are govern to both students and teachers. It also made adequate provision for learning scientific concepts and facts. The concept in science syllabus requires that each topic is to be taught not only in the classroom but also with activities outside the classroom (Anderson, 2000).

Chimere (2004), made the assertion that the inclusion of these topics around central model using the school size science process would make science relevant to all science students besides learning content would also develop an understanding of the limitation of Science in its ability to solve human problems.

2.3 Concept of Biology

According to Charles (2006), there are different concept involve in the subject of Biology. The concept of Biology has it is origin from ancient Greek words bio and logos which means life and study respectively, therefore if the two words are joined it (Biology) means the study of life.

According with to Macken (2002), Biology is the branch of science that concern which consist of nucleus and things. Living things are made up of tiny structures called cells branch of science that cytoplasm surrounded by cell membrane. He also defined Biology as the branch of science that deals with ecology, mycology, physiology, morphology, taxonomy, hydrobiology, cytology, and histology. Moreover Biology studies the activities of living things which Biology is concern with nutrition, excretion, sensitivity, movements, reproduction and growth. Mammals it is the study of all living thing ranging from bacteria to the higher plants and of the most considered as the modern science although it has ancient origin, because is one dynamic and rapidly expanding human endeavour (Macken, 2002). 

Furthermore, Biology is part of the study of natural science. According to Lawson and

Dennis (2005). On their research work point out two major aims of studying science. The first

scientific aim is to become acquainted with the scientific observations man has made and the

ideas developed from these. In other word to learn what science has discovered about natural

world.

The second aim is the findings of science have greatly enlarged the ability to use the forces and resources of nature and have altered the views of our own places in the world. Collectively the whole process of science has materially altered the circumstances of human life

as a result of which the lives are very different from those of the ancestors. Science changes life

and studying science enable people to understand what science really is?

According to Rabinson (2007), Biology is the systematic arrangement of human knowledge of the living world's thus, Biology is the science of life. Life is defined in Biology as a series of process whose hose characteristics may be studied by observation and experimentation. Understanding of fundamental concept of Biology which often facilitates intelligent, decision about problems encountered in daily affairs. Many centuries, human beings have engaged the investigation and asking questions for better understanding of the universe. Gradually human being realized that knowledge and observation must be organized and quantified in order to attain the challenging goal.

According to Devis (2006), knowledge of biology is relevant not only in the academic field but also to entire life on the earth. Biology covers a vast range of phenomena from cells, which develop into tissues and organism to the changes that occur in organisms over vast period of time. They include such matters as how living organism obtain their energy from chemical

Substances, how certain mechanisms control and regulate the functioning of plant s and animals parts and how organisms reproduce and pass on their traits or character from one generation to the next. Such diversity of information a living things allow are greater depth of understanding of life,

Related terms to Biology according to Berg (2001), are outlined and briefly defined as

follows:

A. Living things: cells all living things or living organism are compose of one or more i.e. the functional structures and fundamental unit of life. In which organisms grow by creasing the size and number of their cells.

B.   Metabolism: refers to all the chemical activities that take place in the organism, including the chemical reaction in the essential organism to nutrition growth and in addition to conversation energy to unusable forms.

C.  Homeostatic: - this is the tendency of organism tom maintain a constant internal environment.

D.  Movement: - it IS the characteristics of living organization, some organisms use any    extension of cell called cilia or longer flagella to move from place to place, others organisms are sessile and remain rooted to some surface.

E. Hormones: - chemical messengers that transmit messages from one part of an organism to another.

F. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid):- these are molecules which make up the genes that contain the instruction for development of an organism and carrying out life process. Information encoded in DNA is transmitted from one generation to the next. DNA codes for proteins were important in determining the structure and function of cells and tissues.

G. Reproduction:-refers to the process by which organisms produce their younger ones.

 H. irritability: - organism respond to stimuli; physical or chemical changes in their external or internal environment. 

I. Photosynthesis:-refers food by to the process by which green plants produce its own the use of sunlight, water and carbon dioxide.

2.4 Teaching Biology in African Secondary

Teaching Biology schools project (TBP), is responsible for a workshop which runs in-service teachers training for in evolutionary Biology and the workshop stipulated that science teachers in the western cape town (South Africa) shall be running three in-service teachers training workshop in evaluation Biology, per training year from 2009-2012, in the month of March, July and September in secondary schools. Each workshop, and is limited to fifty the teachers aims and each workshops runs for tour is to improve teachers knowledge teachers to allow their from network a range or with Schools develop resources materials in collaboration

teachers with other and conduct practical assessment task that they can do to their own classroom. The project like teachers to develop their information, computer laboratories and

assistance requires putting together their lesson plans and assessment task using information.

Based on Cape Town (South Africa), the African Genome Education Institute (AGEI) devoted to the public understanding of genomes and their implication for health technology, education and social ethics.

The African Genome Education Institute and social ethics, housed two projects; 

1. The training in evolutionary Biology of the Biology teachers of South African secondary schools, a multi-year project spanning 2009-2012 in partnership with major European averment and South African government (Douglas, 2009).

According to Young (2006), African countries like Nigeria and Sierraleon are facing problems ranging from inadequate teachers, supply of textbook, as well as practical equipments. In some cases, the classroom structures are not also count the southern adequate. part While in or other countries in the southern part  of Africa like Zambia, Zimbabuare e.t.c the teachers complained about the lack of guidance complained by the syllabus on how the behavioral change will be achieved on change i.e the view on change of curriculum development do not produce handbook or guide for teachers.

The workshop was structured two themes: - conservational research and its communication, and application of human range resources development. Sessions focused on conservation science and public agencies, graduate education, and conservation biology in primary and secondary school educators. An overrating concern for conservation research into practical action. This request attention to three areas: communications setting, the research agenda and directly applying scientific method to practical problems (Frank, 2000).

Eric (2002), says that the finding indicate that "the more professionally qualified teachers

in a given school and the availability of laboratory facilities helped students understand certain

concept learned in theory class". Students also perform better in schools which had many different types of textbook available to teachers and students. In addition, students perform in

school in which they did not have to share textbook hence, African countries are lacking the above mentioned situations. 



2.5 Teaching Biology in Nigerian Secondary School 

In Nigeria, beside the global problems of inadequate motivation, funding and teaching materials, the country also lack reliable data for policy making and for the planning of educational programs. Also the problems of disparities have remained unresolved. In this respect, it has been reported by Muhammadu (2004), "that certain socio-cultural and religious considerations have put some groups at disadvantages in regard to participation in a formal education and particularly science and technology which are considered as of great importance for the development or the country. Science it claimed that there is no country would develop without the use of science and technology because they are considered as the backbone nation development. 

It is also observed that, teachers recruit at secondary schools level are still less than adequate that i5, the teachers-students percentage is still very poor, also noted that many biology teachers are still not knowledgeable about the goals of teaching biology (Muhammadu, 2004)

According to Carlisle (2003), reported that increasing the amount of practical work in

science particularly biology when children are using ICT (Information and Communication Technology) have made positive effects on enjoyment of teaching and learning Biology.

2.6 Teaching Biology in Kebbi State Secondary School

Sincerely and honestly speaking; no much effort has been put in teaching Biology in

secondary schools of Kebbi state, by teachers specially within Kebbi metropolis and some selected local government areas of Kebbi state. A data obtained from ministry of education (Kebbi State) has shown that out of the total of 365 teachers in Kebbi only 20 teachers representing 5.5% of teachers have a background in Biology and therefore qualified to teach subject. Similarly out of 847 Biology teachers of Yauri, Bunza, and Zuru local government areas of Kebbi state only 74 representing 8.7% are well trained in science education. Thus one or the main purposes of conducting this research study 15 to provide a write up that will serve as an additional literature to the little work done by others in this area. This work specifically directed on these aspects that are found to be deficient in the related literature and those that are left un-touches by others. 

Daily Trust (18/12/2005), page 3, clarified that Biology as an empirical science is permitted with abstract concepts. The very concept (cell) which lays the foundation of Biology is itself abstract in dimension. According to him students seem to detest Biology largely because there is too much role in learning of cell and evolution associated with it, He added that there is concepts in disproportion between tactual knowledge. His result indicated that the readiness of sufficiently

problem solving is weak in the students. This suggested that students are not found that teachers

exposed to the teaching of the concept in their multi-dimensional ways. Thus, teachers need to and students differ on identification of difficult biological concept. Thus, teachers need to provide students level of understanding of a given concept. Learn to be sensitive to concepts which seem simple but difficult to Students and vice-versa.

Daily Trust (18/12/2005), page 3, recommendeds that curriculum developers should different perceptions. Such concepts that are difficult especially the ones teachers and students present projects, home work and extra lessons. They should be tackled better through suggested students concept understanding are the bases for should also emphasized factual knowledge as science and technical education learning and ultimately for solving problems. More so, science and technical education boards should ensure that their schools Biology laboratories are adequately equipped to enable teachers Concretize fact biological concepts to students. To the examination bodies, who are the final evaluators of the school science at end of secondary schools education Daily Trust advocated that it is necessary for their exams to reflect understanding of science concepts rather than simple recall of factual knowledge which is forgotten after exams. Similarly the exams should am at testing the understanding of concepts, rather than rote memorization. Hence, understanding or biological concepts is measured by the ability of the students to solve problems related to the concept"

Daily Trust (18/12/2005), page 3, concluded that the guided discovery approach to the teaching and learning of the subject (Biology), which was adopted in 1985 should be changed and consider the constructive view of learning Biology which making a lead way in science education and attaches importance to concept of learning and promote better understanding of science through intelligent arguments, chalogue and negotiations. 

Abdullahi (2009), reported that science secondary school in northern states of Nigeria (including Kebbi state), the instructional media used in teaching Biology within Kebbi metropolis and other secondary schools in some local government areas of Kebbi state revealed that 53% of the science teachers he examined in the areas were not trained as science teachers. They were holders of Bachelor of Science Degree (B.Sc), Higher National Diploma (HND) and Ordinary National Diploma (OND) certificates. Similarly only half of them according to him had any training instructional media used. This can undoubtedly be among the devastating causes of great poor Biology teaching on the part of the students and general society at large.

2.7 Parental Attitude toward Learning Biology

Okyinka (2008), condemned the attitude of some parent that try to select carriers for their children instead of giving them the best of guidance whenever they discover any scientific potentialities in them. Okpong (2004), also noticed that some parents in villages or remote areas give example with other rich people working in financial and administrative establishment to their children, trying to give them the notion that scientist are never reach, so that the children will be discouraged from studying science, while in some cases the reverse is the case. (i.e the parents encourage them to read science related courses). According to him, some parental attitudes towards teaching Biology are as follows:-

(1) Parents consider teaching as one of the backward profession towards the country which

       resulted in their laxity towards the desire encouragement which is supposed to be given to 

      their children.         

(2) Most of the parents prepared their children in other areas of discipline

(3) Some parents consider teaching as for the poor class people

(4) Most of the parents are not science oriented in their respective field of discipline for them to 

       appreciate the need and importance of Biology as a subject to be taught in secondary schools       

(5) The crest for other discipline brought about the ignorance and or oversight to encourage the     younger ones to teach Biology in secondary schools.

However, Henry (2011), explained ways of improving child attitude toward learning Biology     by the parents as follows:

Lead by example: children often look to their parents when they form their habit. In order for them to enjoy learning, parent must set a good example. Reading in front of children or parent could read a book with their children. Other ways include enrolment of parents in community colleagues, courses, watching educational TV shows such as discovery channels, facing family trips to museums and surfing the internet together. By making an increased effort to continue furthering of learning by the parents, they are showing children that education is a lifelong and important habit. Additionally, showing childhood school experiences of parents which children might be inspirational. so also teaching children about fun project the parent did in junior high schools might prompt them to do something special for their next school assignment

 Talk to your children: parent should sit down and discuss with their children why they need to embrace their education. Explore together skills and education they will need for their dream job. Invite some recent high school or college graduates over talks with your children. They can tell the students or children grist hand which skills are needed to complete their education. This could inspire parents for their children to see why they should value learning studies

Introduce from educational activities: each of children don't like their regular make together. This sure the family are participating in fun educational activities may be children always have to or students can see that education and learning does not always have to be tedious, hopefully this will make the children attend to their homework more bearable some recommended from education activities are:

(a) Museums (o) aquariums and zoos (c) educational games and puzzles (a) internet activities (e) library sponsored reading activities (f) educational based activity book.

(4) Explore children interest: children should also be allowed to learn various skills and areas                              that interest them. Ask your children of they have an interest in learning anything particular. Giving children a chance if they wanted to know more about something in their life. Parent perhaps can let child pick what the family is doing for their weekly education time or parent can enroll their children music or other lesson.

There are ever summer day and overnight camps that are focused on dance, music theatre, sciences reading and writing negative parental attitudes toward learning biology can create problems in their children attitudes toward Biology and science in general. Children often complain that learning is boring because they don't understand why school is important or they could be having trouble with and learning it, is the material being presented. For whatever reason a child is resisting schools outlook and behaviour. There the parents duty and responsibility to help improve the students children attitude toward learning. These include are many ways that parents can improve their showing why it is important to learn and setting fun, an example, making learning exciting and struggling with schools (Henry, 2011). State importantly helping out children if they are struggling with schools (Henry, 2011).

2.8 Teachers Attitude towards Teaching Biology

One as a science teacher whose functions is to serve as facilitate and agent in the teaching of science in secondary Schools are expected to be very familiar with the nature of science, philosophy of science, reason for how children learn in general science in particular through

taking special note of children with special needs and as well as ensuring equal opportunities for all children irrespective of gender difference. Teachers are also expected to be familiar with the content or the curriculum so as to directly apply every aspect of it in the effective management or secondary science classes. However ti.ere is need for certain competence as secondary Science teachers. These include hard work, innovativeness, being research oriented and being honest e.t.c.

The above mentioned characteristics or qualities will enable the secondary scho0l Biology teachers to play their role both in and outside the school. In a reverse case, it is observed that some teachers are having certain deficiency in taking out their duties as facilitators. These

deficiencies include; inability to meaningfully interprets the performance objective and skipping

unfamiliar content areas in the curriculum. Inability to recognize activities for children, skipping

activities were materials are not readily available instead of improvising, inability sources of

teaching aids, lack of assessment skills as well as rushing the students to finish the scheme of

work (NTI, 2003).

The definition of the attitude and behaviours change according to research areas and test

subjects, generally received a person's negative or positive manner (mode) to certain object or

situation or event. Most of individuals can remember one or more classroom episodes when teachers determined some lasting negative effect on pupils. Unfortunately, on a scientific level

many writing are encapsulated in recalling these intense emotional experiences only. Yet their

message is clear, underlining that the pedagogical relationship is the heart effective (Kearney,

2000).

Constituting positive attitude is important for pre-service teachers. Thus, required qualifications should be determined through measuring acquired attitudes and behaviours during teacher education, changing time and social structures require teachers having much skill in order to perform their jobs effectively. A lot of research activity in teacher education exposes classroom management as the most important skills teacher must have.

Teacher interpersonal behaviour in the classroom and interaction with other people is a

major poorest of school day for most teachers (Henderson, 2000). In the classroom, interaction with students is an essential part of leaving process. Classroom interaction between teachers and students occur rapidly in a classroom, it is indicated that teachers and students occur rapidly in a classroom, it is indicated that teachers in secondary schools may interact with 150 different students in a single day. However, teachers are usually not aware or are not able to describe or remember what happens in their interaction which students for example interviewing teachers, it is confirmed that teachers usually were not aware how many questions they asked students and what kind of feedback they provided (Younger and Brophy, 2002).

Learning environment has been studied with a view to identifying those characteristics of

environment that are associated with enhanced student's achievement. Past learning environment studies have been shown that interpersonal behaviour is one of the characteristics related to students leaving Outcomes. A story, relationship between students attitude and students perception behaviour was also found, Association between students cognitive and effective outcomes and learning environment has been found when classroom environment perception pas been used as predicator variables (Breckelmens, 2004).

Education is not only seen as expanding the learners intellectual potentials but rather d achieving marks passing examination, gaining a university place and obtaining a professional position, with highest possible salary, Most of the teachers that are well informed about biology use appropriate teaching method for teaching the Subject and enthusiastic to teach biology and love their students. Some teachers invite students to get involved in activities such as peer                         discussion, observing demonstration, makes preparation before the lesson. Additionally, some of the biology teachers encourage their students to contribute to the lesson and knows how to attack student's attention to the lesson and try to inform them about the latest improvement of biology. However, some students approve their teachers teaching method and think that they have an understanding of friendly teachers so they could stop the lesson if they have valued problems (Rafferty, 2003).

2.9 Students Attitude toward Learning Biology

Hollander (2002), outlines statements which express a feeling toward Biology by the

students as follows:

Biology is a very interested to me

 I don't like Biology and it tears me but have to like it

 I am always under terrible strength whenever we are having Biology lesson

Biology is fascinating and fun

 Biology makes me feel secure and at the same time is stimulating

 Biology makes me feel uncomfortable, restless, irritable and un-patient

In general, I have a good feeling towards Biology

When I hear the word biology I have a feeling of dislike

1approachBbiology with a feeling of recitation

I really like Biology

They have always enjoyed studying Biology in school

It makes me nervous to ever think about doing a Biology experiment

I feel a case in Biology and like it very much

I fell definite positive reaction to biology, it is able one approach to providing a collaborate opportunities for students of biology is our co-operative learning, a theoretically and ground and well researched apprached in education that can increase students learning of subject matter and improve their attitudes toward both academic in general and the subject matter specifically (Springer and Johnson, 2000).

The theoretical formulation of co-operative learning grew out of social psychologist, Morton Deutsch who specialized in the study of social interdependence (Deutsch, 2002). An extensive research on primary children attitude to science carried out by Murphy and begs (2003), and it was found most of the older pupils (10-11 years) had significantly less attitude in science. In effective science teaching and as well other home related and social factors. Children’s interest in science is also vital for effective science, particularly in developing 

Their confidence in dealing with science in terms of curiosity, open-mindedness and methodological inquiring.

A total of 299 academically gifted, sixth to tenth grade students in south Dakota was administered a 32 items attitude Survey, which was develop using some of the effective items from 1983, international science survey to measure their perception about science and school. A factor analysis of this Survey revealed four interpretable factors accounting to 51% of the variance. Result indicates that those students perceive sciences as instrumental in making the world a better place to live, improving our standard of long, the development of our country and every problem. They find science not only important but interesting in that they actively participate in science activities both inside and outside of class. They also receive school as boring and not very enjoyable. These results suggest that these students country to the negative attitude trend in science have a positive attitude toward science, their science teachers and science classroom (Patrick, 2005).

Boys have more positive attitude toward information and communication technologies used in biology lesson in comparison with the older students (Badome, 2003). School subject choice (Science in particular), can be thought of as dominant person, the one who works outside the home in often prestigious occupation while the female is usually portrayed as being subordinate and confined to the home (Tracy, 2006). It is claimed that schools, teachers and

School curriculum, encourage girls to adopt passive and dependent behaviour, and male adopt

aggressive and independent behaviours. Moreover gender stereo types in textbooks have been

well documented (Simpson, 2010). The activities experiences, interest, achievement and modes

Of thinking of girls have been accorded lower status and have been judged deficient (Maniccom, 2010). 

An intervention program suggested that through students teacher, and student-Student interaction, students conceptual and procedural understanding of Biology was facilitated and their attitude toward learning were enhanced. A few of the students could not accept the investigation as it complicated with their bias of learning in an examination culture (Tan, 2006).

In the year 1985 a need for change to the construction list view of learning has been which is making head way in science education (Specifically Biology) and promote better understanding of science through intelligent argument dialogue and negotiation (Robert, 2000). 

2.10 Related Research Work 

Research work conducted by Sunday, Emmanuel and Akintola (2003), on the ”problems of teaching basic science in secondary schools of Birnin Kebbi town", revealed that lack of improvisation, inefficiency in teachers, lack of indigenous basic science teachers, poor encouragement to the teachers by ministry of education and technical education board, poor use of the experimental skills etc have all been shown to have militate and hinder the teaching and learning of basic science in the area under study. 

Nonetheless the research study carried out by Aliyu and Ibrahim (2004), on”the problems of improvisation in teaching of science in secondary schools of Kebbi metropolis; revealed that students were force to offer science courses. They also stated that student’s background in Science courses or subjects like biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics e.t.c was very  abysmal and the major contribution to student's poor performance in science, there is no

carrier master in most of the schools. The students are not efficiently exposed to the usefulness of science. 

Similarly, research carried out by Taye and Kayinde (2003)), on “the problems facing the teaching and learning of elementary science in selected primary schools of Kano state”. identified the below problems in the teaching and learning of elementary science in primary schools, the problems are; science equipment are not available, most of the teachers use lecture method of teaching which above their cognitive level, there are no laboratories in most of the schools e.t.c. 

Furthermore, research conducted by Iliya, Haruna and Sani (2001), on “the problems and prospects of teaching science in rural secondary schools of Katsina state” revealed that the  problems of teaching science in rural secondary schools of Katsina state are related to poor science facilities, poor teaching method by science teachers, teaches inability to improvise  science materials, high teacher-students ratio, insufficient fund for science education, and problems of popularization of science in rural secondary schools.

In a nutshell, previous researchers revealed the problems related to science teaching and learning situation in our society: lack of qualified indigenous teachers, poor use of instructional materials, students were force to offer science courses, absence of teaching equipment, poor teaching method by science teachers, limited period (time) of teaching science and absence of Laboratories in most of the school concerned. 

From the related findings above, Kebbi state like other states have many secondary schools in which some of the above mentioned problems are expected to operate. It is therefore, the researcher’s aims to assess the intensity of these problems and prospects in the urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state. 

2. 1.1 Uniqueness of the Study

As the name implies for this research study the main and the most unique in this research study is to focus, emphasize, and assess critically the extent and nature of the problems and prospects of teaching and learning biology in some selected urban and rural secondary schools from Kebbi state whereby we will try and endeavor to investigate and find out the major constraints that are hindering the teaching of biology in the selected and studied areas with the view of coming up with possible solutions to such problems.

One of the uniqueness of our research study is that, this study will helps in enhancing or 

improving the teaching and learning techniques of teaching Biology by Biology teachers in order to carry out their work efficiently and this will also be covered in both the rural and urban secondary schools selected where we will the find the suitable method used by Biology teachers towards teaching biology for students! cognitive understanding and potentialities and also number of biology teachers for each selected school will be determined these includes teachers with B.Sc, teachers with B.Sc, (Ed), teachers with NCE, teachers with Diploma are also to be determined and known so that we will know which teachers have a qualification for teaching Biology and those who are accidently in teaching the subject and often all we will compare and contrast the number of Biology teachers with the above qualification in both the . Ural and urban secondary schools selected in order to find the percentage of each area. 

Another way by which our study will be specially different is that we are carrying out this search study in order to examine the teachers and students attitude, desire, aspiration, interest influence and need to the teaching and learning Biology respectively and in addition to identify the major factors that affect the teaching and learning Biology in some selected secondary schools of Kebbi state. Furthermore this research project will entails to carry out with a view to find out and identify teacher’s commitments, effectiveness, and competence to their work as Biology teachers and also to look on the various teaching method suitable for Biology students that biology teachers follow in the teaching and learning process of biological experiences and activities in the selected and studied urban and rural secondary schools. 

Additionally one of the uniqueness of our research study is that this research study is carrying out in order to or with the hope to touch on the examine and determine of students teachers ratio in the selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state and also will emphasizes on the determination of administrative set-up which is also unique feature of this study in selected secondary schools (both urban and rural secondary schools) of Kebbi state which will provide a very conducive and atmospheric condition of teaching and learning Biology on the part of teachers and students respectively. 













CHAPTER THREE

 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction 

The methodology of this research as well as the procedures for collecting data is described in this chapter. It gives a description of research design, research population, sample and sampling techniques, research instruments, validity of the research instruments, pilot study, reliability of the instruments, administration of the instruments, procedures to followed in carrying out of this research and method of data analysis are also presented in this chapter. 

3.2 Research Design 

Research design refers to the term used to describe a number of decision which needs  to be taken regarding the collection of data before ever data were collected, this implies preparing a mental plan or scheme for solving research problems in systematic manner with in the circumstance of the researchers (Clarriocoates, 2010). 

However non-experimental research design is of concern to this study since it is a descriptive research. Moreover, the typical instrument recommended for descriptive research is questionnaire. Therefore with regard to this study the uses of questionnaire were adopted in order to obtain information needed for this research it is descriptive in nature (Weight, 2000). 

3.3 Population of the Study 

The population of this research study is focus on 10 secondary schools of Kebbi state; five out of them are selected in urban areas while the remaining five are selected in the rural areas of the state. 

It also comprises of all the principals of the selected schools, all the biology teachers in schools as well the selected 5 as the students of Biology In the selected urban and rural secondary schools of the state. 

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 

The sample of this study include (10) principals, seven (7) biology teachers from each schools in both selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state, ten (10) Biology students from each school in both urban and rural secondary schools are to be selected. These will be summarized as ten (10) Principals, seventy (70) Biology teachers and hundred (100) Biology students making a total of one hundred and eighty (180) sample respondents. The detail is in the tabular form as follows: 

3.4.1. Number of Sampled Schools, Students & Teachers. 

S/N

NAME OF SAMPLE SCHOOL

NUMBER OF SAMPLE TEACHERS

NUMBER OF SAMPLE STUDENTS

NUMBER OF SAMPLE PRICIPAL


1

Gov’t Day Sec. Sch. Aliero

7

10

1


2

Gov’t Day Sec. Sch. Jega

7

10

1


3

Gov’t Day Sec. Sch. Zaga

7

10

1


4

Gov’t Day Sec. Sch. Argungu

7

10

1


5

Gov’t Day Sec. Sch. Bunza

7

10

1


6

Gov’t Day Sec. Sch. Yauri

7

10

1


7

Nagari College Birnin Kebbi

7

10

1


8

Abdullahi Fodio Sec. Sch. B/K

7

10

1


9

Kanta College Argungu

7

10

1


10

Sheik Abubakar Gummi Jega

7

10

1


TOTAL

10 (Ten) Schools

70

100

10



The sample was drawn using a random sampling method which is the method of selecting a sample from a population so that all members of population have equal chance of being selected. 

This technique is also adapted to aid in handling and processing a more and accurate data 

so as to produce a more meaningful analyzed data. 

In a nutshell the technique is adapted to help in overcoming the difficulties of working on bulky material in a very short of time. 

3.5 Research Instrument 

The instrument used In this study is the self design questionnaire which consists of three categories, the first category was named as principal questionnaire, second category named as teachers' questionnaire and third category named as students questionnaire. The researchers decided to use the questionnaire as an Ideal method for this study, because it will help us to identify the problems and prospects of teaching and learning biology in some selected urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state. According to Weight (2000), a questionnaire is a device used for getting information to the question asked by a form which the respondent is expected to fills by himself/herself. 

The questionnaire comprises two parts; the first part centered on Biology teachers while the other part is for the Biology students. The questionnaire for biology teachers consist of twenty questions. The first section of the questionnaire deals with the background information of the teachers, their qualifications, teaching experiences, periods of lesson per week, and how these periods are distributed over classes. Furthermore, it also sought for teaching materials, and teachers-students relationship, similarly this section also what to know how frequently teachers attended seminars, workshops, exhibition and what type of encouragement accorded to them from the school authority to attend Biology seminars, workshops and exhibition with or outside the state. 

 Furthermore, the second section of the questionnaire sought for information about the Principal’s responses toward biology, the type of recommended textbooks often in use. And whether each student’s had a copy and above all the simplicity of the textbooks. In addition. it also ask for the number of laboratories the schools have, whether the laboratories have goons” space, furniture and equipments, gas and water supply, laboratory assistants, their qualifications, their attitude toward work and how competent they are in manipulating instruments and setting up experiments when they are given written instruction; and how often do they attend in-service courses, workshops and seminars, progressively. The last section of the questionnaire by teachers; student’s attitude to the studying of Biology; the condition for their choice of Biology; observe areas of difficulties in Biology course and the steps taken by teachers to alleviate these difficulties. Similarly, it also want know information on how frequently do Biology teachers were visited by supervisors and the attitude of the supervisors to the teachers; the types of comments and suggestion given to teachers by supervisors. Finally, it also requested teachers to give suggestion and comments on how to improve the teaching of Biology. 

The second part of the questionnaire was for the principals and consisted of thirteen (13) 

questions. The first section of the questionnaire sought for the number of Biology teachers, the number of Biology periods; whether the teachers are adequate and whether the schools provide both the teachers and students with recommended textbooks and the types of incentives and encouragement given to both teachers and-students; as well as whether Biology teachers attend Biology workshops, seminars or exhibitions organized by government on Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) and also whether the teachers are members of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN). 

Similarly, it also sought for the role played by the principals in checking records, making 

Found available for biology programs and identifying major problems in conjunction with 

interested Biology teachers. Moreover, the second section of this questionnaire want know the role played by biology supervisors on visiting schools, the part played by the ministry in Procuring funds for the purchase of Biology equipments and text books in seeing the success of teaching in schools, and most importantly how often does the ministry of education organizes workshops, seminars and exhibitions on Biology teaching. On the other hand, it also sought to know whether the students have been going on excursion to places where knowledge of Biology is applied while another question want to know whether the principals have formulated any scientific philosophy which will cater for the needs of the students and also whether the principals make funds available to execute biology programs. Finally the principals will be requested to give comment and suggestion and how to improve the teaching of Biology in secondary schools. 

3.6 Validity of the Research Instrument. 

The instrument's was validated by experts and supervisors in which observation and corrections were made. However, the corrections ant] observations were appropriately addressed in the questionnaire (both teachers and principal’s questionnaire) by the researchers. This established the validity of the instrument. 

3.7 Pilot Study 

A pilot study was conducted with some secondary schools outside the sample and the schools were even outside the state wing the same instrument in order to test its reliability, the schools are Government Day Senior Secondary School, Danturai and Government Science Secondary School, both in Gusau metropolis of Zamfara state. The instrument was given to the 

Principal's of the above two schools, Biology teachers of the above schools as well as Biology students in the above mentioned schools Lust to test the reliability of this research study. 

3.8 Reliability of the Instrument

Reliability of the instrument is concern with the consistency of the measurement. In respect to this study test-re-test method was used and Person Product Moment Correlation was also applied for the instruments which are obtained as follows. 

For the principal’s instrument, we obtained a co-efficient correlation of 0.70, which shows the instrument was reliable. 

 For the teachers instrument 0.74 co-efficient correlation was obtained which also indicates that the instrument was reliable. 

 While for the students instruments we obtained a co-efficient correlation of 0.73 which proves that the instrument is reliable. All using test-retest method and Person Product Moment Correlation. . 

3.9 Administration of the Instrument 

The instrument of this research study was administered to principals of the selected schools, Biology teachers in the selected schools as well as Biology students in the schools under study. The instrument was then collected back by the researchers in the same day. 

3.10 Procedure for Data Analysis 

The statistical techniques used in analyzing and qualifying the data of this research study are: 

(a) Frequency distribution 

(b) Percentage

These techniques were employed for easy computation of result collected from the respondents. After computation of result, tabulation will be made so as to show clearly the relationship required between responses and as well as basic assumptions.




CHAPTER FOUR

DATA REPRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction

This chapter comprises presentation, analysis and discussion of the data collected on the bases of the research question of this research questions of this research work. As earlier stated, the purposes of this study is to survey the problems and prospects of teaching and learning of Biology in some selected rural and urban secondary schools of Kebbi State.

4.2 Analysis of the Data collected 

  The result of the research question and null hypothesis was represented as follows:

Question one: what are the problems associated with teaching and learning Biology?

Table 4.1 Teachers difficulties in understanding Biology. 

Cause of difficulties

No. of teachers from urban sec. schools

%

No. of teachers from rural sec. schools

%


Poor background in science subjects

9

36%

10

40%


Deficiency in English language

7

28%

6

24%


Lack of seriousness

5

20%

5

20%


Automatic promotion

3

12%

3

12%


Lack of text books

1

4%

1

4%


Total 

25

100%

25

100%



The table above shows that majority of the teachers from both urban and rural secondary schools take poor background in science subject as the major cause of student’s difficulties in understanding Biology, followed by deficiency in English language, lack of seriousness, automatic promotion as well as lack of textbooks in order of preference. 

Table 4.2 In availability of Biology laboratory.

Number of laboratory

No. of students Response from urban sec. schools 

%

No. of students response from rural sec. schools

 %


2-3

10

22%

30

75%


3-4

25

56%

8

5%


4-5

10

22%

2

20%


Total 

45

100%

40

100%



Based on the above result on the number of biology laboratories, it indicates that forty-five respondents from urban secondary schools, ten representing (22%) advocated that they had 2-3 number of Biology laboratories, twenty-five respondents representing (56%) claimed they had 3-4 numbers of laboratories while ten representing (22%) claimed that they had 4-5 number of laboratories in the schools. On the other hand out of forty respondents from rural secondary schools, thirty representing (75%) claimed that they had 2-3 number of laboratories, eight representing (20%) advocates that they had 3-4 numbers of laboratories while two representing (5%) disclosed that they had 4-5 laboratories in their schools. 

Question two:  Are teachers effective and efficient in carrying out their task as Biology teachers?

4.3 Number of teachers by qualification

Qualification 

No. of teachers response from urban sec. schools

%

No. of teachers response from rural sec. schools

%


NCE

10

40%

15

60%


Diploma

5

20%

5

20%


B.sc(Ed)

5

20%

2

8%


B.sc

5

20%

3

12%


Total 

25

100%

25

100%



The table above indicate that respondents from urban secondary schools are twenty five, out of them ten representing (40%) had NCE as their teaching qualification, five representing (20%) had Diploma, five also representing (20%) had B.sc(Ed) in education while five presenting (20%) had B.sc while respondent from rural secondary schools  were also twenty five and out of them fifteen representing (60%) had an NCE as their qualification in teaching, five representing (20%) had a diploma, two representing (8%) had B.sc(Ed) as well as three representing (12%) had B.sc as their teaching qualification.

Table 4.4 Teaching experience of Biology teachers.

Years of experience

No. of teachers response in Urban  sec. school

%

No. of teachers response from rural sec. school 

%


0-1 years

0

0%

1

4%


1-2 years

3

12%

3

12%


2-3 years

4

16%

9

36%


3-4 years

14

56%

5

20%


Over 5 years

4

16%

7

28%


Total 

25

100%

25

100%



Based on the table out of the twenty-five respondents from urban secondary schools, three representing (12%) had been in teaching experience for 1-2 years, four representing (16%) had been in teaching profession for 2-3 years, fourteen which represent (56%) had been in teaching profession for 3-4 years as well as four representing (16%) had a teaching experience for over five years. In the other hand respondents from rural secondary schools show that one representing (4%) had been in teaching experience for less than a year, three presenting (12%) had been in teaching profession for 1-2 years, nine representing (36%) had a teaching profession for 2-3 years, five representing (20%) had a teaching experience of 3-4 years while seven which represent (28%) had been in teaching experience for over five years.

Question three: what are their availability and adequacy of facilities and equipment’s in teaching Biology?

Table 4.5 Teachers response to students having Biology textbooks.

Copies 

No of teachers response  from urban sec. schools

%

No. of teachers response from rural sec. schools.

%


Teacher claimed that teach student has a textbook to himself or herself 

5

20%

4

16%


Teacher who claimed that their students shared textbooks.

7

28%

6

24%


Teacher who claimed that few students have textbooks

13

52%

15

60%


Total 

25

100%

25

100%



From the result above, respondent from urban secondary schools show that five represent (20%) claimed that each student had text book to himself or herself, seven which represent (28%) disclosed that students shared textbooks and thirteen representing (52%) claimed that only few students had textbooks. On the other hand respondents from rural secondary schools show that out of twenty-five respondents, four representing (10%) claimed that students had textbooks to themselves. Six representing (24%) advocated that students shared textbooks and fifteen representing (60%) claimed that only few students had textbooks.


Table 4.6 Teachers response on laboratory facilities.

Response 

No. of teachers response from urban sec. schools

%

No of teachers response from rural sec. school

%


Yes 

15

60%

18

72%


No  

10

40%

7

28%


Total  

25

100%

25

100%


  

The above table indicates that from urban secondary schools, fifteen representing (60%) said that their school laboratories had adequate space, enough work bench and chairs, ten representing (40%) confirmed that their laboratories had no adequate space, work bench and chairs. While on the other hand respondents from rural secondary school, eighteen representing (22%) advocated that their school laboratories had adequate   space, enough work bench and chairs while seventeen which represent (28%) claimed that the laboratories in their schools had no adequate space, work bench and chairs. 

Question four: are there any comparison or contradiction on the problems and prospects of teaching Biology?

Table 4.7 Comparison of teachers from urban and rural secondary schools on Techniques of teaching.

Method used by teachers 

No of respondents from urban sec. school 

%

No of respondents from rural sec. school

%


Lecture method

4

16%

5

20%


Demonstration method  

8

32%

4

16%


Discussion method

2

8%

8

32%


Discovery method

8

32%

5

20%


Inquiry 

1

4%

3

12%


Total 

25

100%

25

100%



         The table above indicates that respondents from urban secondary schools are twenty five out of which four representing (16%) often used lecture method, eight representing (32%) often used demonstration method as their method of teaching, two which represent (8%) often used discussion method and used discussion method and eight representing (32%) often used discovered method as their teaching technique and one representing (4%) often used inquiry method while in comparison to rural secondary schools out of twenty five respondents five representing (20%) claimed that they often used lecture method, four representing (16%) said that they often used demonstration method, eight representing (32%)  admit ted that they often used discussion method, and five representing (20%) claimed that they often used discovery as well as three representing (12%) said that they often used inquiry method for teaching their students.

4.3 summary of the major findings 

Based on the analysis of data obtained above, the major findings of this research are summarized as follows;

56% of the students in urban secondary schools had 3-4 numbers of Biology laboratories in their schools while 75% of their counterpart in the rural secondary schools had 2-3 numbers of Biology laboratories.

It is a worth notice that 40% of the teachers in urban secondary schools had N.C.E as their teaching qualification while 60% of the teachers in the rural secondary schools had N.C.E certificate.

60% of the students in rural secondary schools disclosed that their students had few textbooks, 24% had shared textbooks while 16% had textbooks of themselves.  

It is clearly observed that 72% of the teachers in rural secondary schools had adequate facilities in their schools while their counterpart in urban secondary schools is 60%.

4.4 Discussion of the findings. 

The following can be deducted from the above finding, of this research work, that is problems and prospects of teaching and learning Biology in urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state.

  Findings show the hypothesis is accepted that majority of the teachers in both urban and rural secondary schools had poor background in science which is the major students difficulties in understanding Biology and this result is in agreement with the earlier findings where a data  obtained from ministry of Education (Kebbi State) which showed that out of the total of 365 teachers in Kebbi metropolis, only 20 teachers representing 5.5% had a background in Biology while others had no background on the subject, similarly out of 847 Biology teachers of  Aliero, Jega, and maiyama local government areas of Kebbi state only 74 representing 8.7% had background in science education.

Findings also indicates that majority of the teachers in both urban and rural secondary schools had certificates in education in order to be involved in teaching profession where about 40% and 60% of the urban and rural secondary schools respectively had NCE as their qualification and majority of their laboratories (Biology laboratories) are well equipped.

These above findings of our research work is in agreement with a research conducted by Eric (2002), which in his research found that the more professionally Biology teachers in a given schools and the availability of laboratory facilities helped students to understand certain concepts in psychological theory.

The result of our findings also shows that the hypothesis is accepted that majority of the teachers in both urban and rural secondary schools had certificate in education where NCE carried the highest percentage, and the above findings is in contradiction and reciprocation to a research conducted by Abdullahi (2009),  where he reported that science secondary schools on northern state of Nigeria (including Kebbi state), revealed that 53% of the science teachers he examine in the areas were not trained as science teachers, they were holders of Bachelor of science Degree (B.sc), Higher National Diploma (HND) and ordinary National Diploma (OND) certificates.





CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

 This chapter comprises the following, based on the research findings on the problems and prospects of teaching and learning Biology in Urban and Rural Secondary Schools of Kebbi State;

Introduction 

Summary 

Conclusion 

Summary of the major findings

Recommendation 

Limitation to the study 

Suggestion for further research 


5.2 Summary 

The study was carried out to determine the problems and prospects of teaching and learning Biology in urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state. The instrument used in the collection of information for this study was questionnaire for Biology teachers, principals of the selected schools as well as biology students of the selected secondary schools. The results of this study is summarized as follows:

Firstly, it was revealed from the responses of the Biology teachers, principals as well as Biology students that students were forced to do Biology because it has been the policy of state government that all science students in science secondary schools should be offered all the three science subjects such as Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. Furthermore all the Biology teachers sampled in this study were found very well qualified to teach Biology and almost all had teaching experience. However, only few of the teachers attended workshops, seminars and exhibition. It was also revealed from this study that the teachers no longer received science allowances.

Secondly, the discovery and demonstration method of teaching were the most often method used by Biology teachers and were occasionally complemented with other method like inquiry, discussion and individualized method. The number of periods allocated for teaching Biology was seen as adequate by most of the teachers in booth urban and rural secondary schools. Majority of teachers, principals and students said their laboratories are inadequate for their ramifications and suggested for more laboratories and equipments to be provided.

Similarly, recommended textbooks were not available in most of the schools and even where such books were available; most students have no copies of such textbooks. In addition all the school laboratories assistants were unqualified and inefficient because they had not been trained. 

Thirdly, the teacher’s frequency of test and making was satisfactory, the students background in general science and English language were found to be poor and were among other major causes of student’s difficulties in understanding Biology. It was revealed that most of the teachers set their questions while others drew questions from the content covered and were complimented by question lifted books. 

Fourthly, the number of the selecting Biology at the schools certificate examination appeared to be increasing possibly because as the increase in the intake of students population in various schools. Furthermore from teachers responses, students have not been sufficiently exposed to the usefulness of studying Biology because they did not go an excursion and were not given projects to carry out. Moreover, most of the schools had no career counseling mater for the purpose of quickly students in their choice of subjects against admission requirements to higher institution and for future vocation. However, the choice of Biology at the school  certificates examination was found to be higher dictated by usefulness of the subject for future career. However, from  the teachers responses, all the principals showed in science and paid attention to the activities of the science department- contrary to this only very few principals claimed that they had formulated some scientific programmers that would cater for the interest of the students in their schools.   


5.3 Conclusion 

From the above findings, what constituted the main problems of teaching and learning Biology in the areas of study as follows;

Poor background of students in general science affects their attitudes of Biology 

Lack of adequately equipped laboratories and lack of provisions of adequate textbooks affect the proper learning of Biology.

 The conditions of service for teachers were not good enough for them to put maximum efforts in teaching Biology.

Lack of teaching facilities are responsible for poor students performance in Biology. 

Lack of qualified laboratory assistants affect teaching and learning of Biology.

Lack of provision for career masters may affects students performance in Biology.

Lack of frequent and proper inspections by the ministry encourages laxity on the part of Biology.

Free educational system and automatic promotion contributed to lack of seriousness resulting to poor students performance in learning Biology.

5.4 Summary of the major findings

   The findings of the above research can be summarized as follows;

Poor background and deficiency in English language are the major difficulties of Biology teachers in understanding the subject.

Schools in urban are provided with Biology laboratories than those of their counterpart in the rural area.

Majority of Biology teachers in both urban and rural secondary schools are N.C.E holders.

Biology teachers in urban secondary schools are more experienced than their counterpart in the rural secondary schools.

Only few students in both urban and rural secondary schools posses Biology textbooks of their own.

Majority off the laboratories in both the two setting (urban and rural) are adequate equipped with facilities and equipment’s.

5.5 Recommendations 

Undergoing from finding and discussion of this study, the following recommendations can be made, 

Teachers should emphasize in the study of science courses and the government should make a provision that will uplift their potentialities in the science subjects as it is the major cause of students in understanding Biology.

Government should provides available Biology laboratories, particularly, in the rural secondary schools of the state.

The ministry of education should select qualified Biology textbooks, and recommended back to the ministry the ones that have related to pupils experience.

Funds for the repair of damaged equipment’s and facilities in the laboratories should be provided to each school by the government and teacher should also be encouraged to improvise facilities in their laboratories in the absence of standard readily available or the actual ones.

Teachers should also be advised by the government to pursued or further their education to high academic rank in education example B.Sc. (Ed). Etc.

Teachers should be encourage to adopt discovery method of teaching especially in rural secondary schools as it is the suitable method where students discover scientific processes, products, events, e t c on their own.

5.6 Limitations to the study

While carrying out this research work, we have experienced so many problems and inconsistencies, some of which includes, financial constraints, lack of co-operation in most of the rural secondary schools, transportation problems, time consumption etc.

5.7 Suggestion for further research 

Based on this research work, researcher have suggested the following research in order to help teachers, students, parents, supervisors, and policy makers various ways.

Students attitude to Biology in urban and rural secondary schools of Kebbi state.

Students general ability on science subjects in Nigerian secondary schools.

Comparative studies on the performance of Biology between males and females students in Kebbi state.

Problems of infrastructural facilities in urban and rural secondary schools of Nigeria. 

    



















APPENDIX A

Questionnaire on the problems and prospects of Teaching and Learning Biology in Urban and Rural Secondary Schools of Kebbi State.

Department of science and Vocational Education, Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Kebbi State University of science and technology Aliero.


INTRODUCTION:

You can help by answering the following questions carefully and honestly. You are expected to tick the answer you strongly agreed with.


PRINCIPALS QUESTIONNAIRE:

Name of your school………………………………………………………………………

 Sex (a) male          (b) female            

How many Biology teachers do you have?

3           (b) 4           (c) 5           (d) 6             (e)others specify             

Are (Biology teachers) they adequate?

(a) yes              (b)  No       

        5.   How many of them are qualified?    

              (a)  3          (b)  4          (c) 5          (d) 6            (e) others specify          

        6. how many have attended seminar on Biology?

            (a) 3         (b) 4        (c) 5          (d) 6          (e) others specify           

         7. How frequent do you check the records of works on Biology?

            (a)  Always           (b) Weekly             (c)   monthly            

         

8. Number of Biology laboratories in your school 

             (a)  1           (b) 2           (c)  3           

  9. How frequent do inspectors of Biology visit your School?

             (a)  Weekly           (b) monthly            (c) yearly            

  10. How often the ministry does organize workshops or seminar on Biology teaching?

                    (a) once in a year             (b) Twice in a year             (c) Thrice in a year                       11. Do you make funds available to execute Biology program?   

               (a) yes            (b)  No             














APPENDIX B

Questionnaire on the problems and prospects of Teaching and Learning Biology in Urban and Rural Secondary Schools of Kebbi State.

  Department of Science and Vocational Education, Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Kebbi State university of science and Technology Aliero (KSUSTA).

  


INSTRUCTION: 

You can help by answering the following questions carefully and honestly, the questions are multiple choice therefore you can expected to tick the appropriate answer of your choice, if (a) is the answer you just tick it “tick it in the appropriate box provided under (a), while if it is (b) do the same things and if it is (c) do the same thing and so on. You are not expected to writes any comment on the instrument.

TEACHERS QUESTIONNAIRE:

Name of your school………………………………………………………………………

Sex (a) male            (b) Female                

Qualification of the teacher.

Diploma         (b) NCE           (c) B.Sc.           (d)   B.Sc. (Ed)             

Teaching experience.

0-1 years            (b) 1-2 years            (c) 2-3 years             (d) 3 and above             

 Did you ever attend any Biology seminar?

Yes            (b) No              

Are there available Biology textbooks in your school?

Yes           (b) No            

How many periods do you have per week?

3             (b) 4            (c) 5              (d) 6           

 

Do you ever go for workshop on Biology?

Yes              (b) No             

How many laboratories do you have in your school?

1              (b) 2            (c) 3           (d) 4              

Do you ever go for workshops on Biology? 

 Yes            (b) No                 

How often do you use teaching materials like pictures, real objects, and models e.t.c.

Always   n          (b) weekly            (c) monthly            

Do your students have interest in biology?

Yes             (b) No            

How many are you as Biology teachers in your school?

3             (b) 4              (c) 5             (d) 4           

Do you have recommended Biology textbooks in your school?

Yes              (b) No            

Which method are you using in teaching Biology?

Demonstration           (b) Discussion            (c) Laboratory method             

Is your Biology laboratory well equipped?

Yes               (b) No           














APPENDIX C

Questionnaire in the problems and prospects of teaching and learning biology in Urban and Rural Secondary schools of Kebbi state.

Department of science and vocational Education, faculty of Education and Extension services, Kebbi State university of science and technology Aliero. Kebbi state.

   

INTRODUCTION:

You can help by answering the following questions carefully and honestly, the questions are multiple choice therefore you are expected to tick the appropriate answer of your choice, if (a) is the answer you just “tick it in the appropriate box provided under (a), while if it is (b) do the same thing and if it is (c) do the same thing and so on. You are not expected to writes any comment on the instrument. 

STUDENTS QUESTIONNAIRE:

Name of your school……………………………………………………………….

Sex (a) male           (b) female

Which class are you?

S S I             (b) SS II             (c) S S III

Do you like Biology as a subject?

Yes               (b) No

Do you like method used by your Biology teachers in teaching Biology?

Yes               (b) No

Do you usually understand your teachers while teaching Biology?

Yes                (b)  No

Do the Biology teacher attend any workshop or seminar on Biology?

Yes           (b) No

How many periods do you have per week on Biology lesson?

4              (b)  5            (c) 6


How many Biology do you have in your school?

3               (b) 4             (c) 5             (d) 6

Does your school provide recommended textbooks to the teacher?

Yes             (b) No

Do you ever go for excursion where the knowledge of Biology is applied?

Yes                (b) No

Do the teachers attend the classes?

Yes                 (b) No

How many laboratories do you have in your school?

2              (b) 3            (c) 4

Do you have separate Biology laboratory?

Yes              (b) No

If yes to the above, is it well equipped?

Yes              (b) No

How often does your teacher use teaching materials like, pictures, real objects, and models. e.t.c.

Always            (b) weekly             (c) monthly












REFERENCES

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Akintola, D.S (2003, October 4). Acquisition of skills and knowledge for chemistry teachers. The Nigerian tribune,  p.8.

Aliyu, B.S., & Ibrahim, S.L. (2004). Problems of improvisation in teaching science in  kebbi state metropolis in secondary schools. Unpublished B.Sc (Ed) project, kebbi state university of science and technology, aliero.

Balogun, R.M. (2005). Problems of teaching science in kebbi state in some secondary schools. Unpublished B.Sc. (Ed), keebbi state university of science and technology Aliero.

Young, B.L. (2006). Teaching primary science. London: united kingdom (UK) publishers limited.

Tan, L.U. (2006). An exploration of senior higher school students. Illori: public publishers limited. 

Tracy, R. (2006). Problems of  teaching and learning biology in nigeria in rural secondary schools. Unpublished B.Sc. (Ed) project,  Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, kaduna state, Nigeria.

Ukpong, K.U. (2004).parents attitude towards science. Implication for parents to childs. The university of Ibadan (UI) journal of parents teachers association (PTA). 5(1), 2-8.

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30(11), 2-26.

Macmillan English dictionary for advanced learners (2007). New edition.

Maniccon, H. (2010). Mode of thinking of girls attitude toward the achievement of learning biology. Implication for mode of thinking. The lagos state journal of students attitude in learning science. 5(1), 2-5.

NTI. (2003). Manual for the retraining of school teachers. Kaduna: national teachers institute (NTI) kaduna press limited.

Olayanka, U.V. (2008). You and your carrier. Illorin: public press limited.

STAN. (1970). Curriculum Development. Implication for integrated science. The science teachers association (STAN) journal of curriculum development newsletter. 2(1), 2-10.

Muhammad, A. (2004). Socio-cultural and religious influences on formal education. Implication for socio-cultural and religious. The baayero university journal of the importance of socio- cultural and religious on formal education. 5(2), 6-15.

 


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