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Determination of Nutritional value of soyabeans based Daddawa and lucost beans

Determination of Nutritional value of soyabeans based Daddawa and lucost beans

Determination of Nutritional value of soyabeans based Daddawa and lucost beans 



CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction and literature review

1.1 Introduction

Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. They often add nutrients, help process or prepare the food, and make the food more attractive (IFIC, 2016). They are primarily used for flavouring, colouring, garnishing or preserving food (Thomas et al., 2012). Most of the man-made food additives are produced by fermentation process. Fermentation is one of the oldest methods of food processing and preservation known to man (McGovern et al., 2014). In Africa, the art of fermentation is wide-spread including the processing of seeds, fruits and non alcoholic beverages (Adewusi et al., 1992). Food fermentation is basically aimed at producing important nutrients or eliminating anti-nutrients. This is necessary therefore to improve the prevailing cases of malnutrition in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan countries (Steinkraus, 1995). Various types of condiments which are products of fermented seeds that are in use in Africa and some other parts of the world depending on the available raw materials and cultural background include; Kinema in Nepal (Tamang, 2000). Tooa-nao Thailand (Yokotsuka, 1991). Oso in south western Nigeria (Popoola et al., 2007). and Soumbala in Burkina Faso (Ouoba et al., 2003). Locust beans cake, a popular food additive in Nigeria is a type of fermented and processed locust beans (Parkia biglobosa) or Soya beans (Glycinemax) used as a condiment in cooking. Locust beans cake is known as Iru by Yoruba people and Daddawa in Hausa land. It is used in cooking traditional soups like Egusi soup, Okro soup and Ogbono soup. It has a black appearance and a strong pungent smell. (Ikenebomeh et al., 1986, Diawara 2000). In Kebbi, northern Nigeria, daddawa is one of the most fully exploited traditional additives, used almost every day; in most food preparations, for its aroma and flavouring enhancing effects. Apart from serving as a food additive that enhances the organo-leptic properties of the food, daddawa may also serve as a source of proteins; especially soya beans based daddawa which is rich in protein contents. (Omafuvbe et al., 2000) Even though used in small quantity, daddawa can augment and enrich the diet and can also be recommended to peosple who suffer from protein energy malnutrition in the absence of protein rich diet, particularly in Africa and some parts of Asia. In general, both locust beans and soya beans-based condiments are organoleptically similar (Omafuvbe et al., 2007). However, the popularity of soya bean daddawa is marred by the perception that it is prone to faster deterioration than locust bean daddawa; at the end of the fermentation period (Diawara 2000). Indeed, method of fermentation and handling after processing may in general interfere with nutritional properties of the condiments. In view of this, this research is geared towards providing some nutritional insight of the two condiments popularly sold in Yauri, L.G.A, Kebbi, Nigeria. 

1.1.1 Justification

Soya beans and lucost beans based daddawa are usually consumed in our diet as food additives without actually having knowledge on their nutritional value. This research project is therefore design to provide a scientific proves on the nutritional value of the two additives (Lucost and soya beans based Daddawa). The research is also designed to compare the Nutritional value of the two condiments.




1.1.2 Aims and objectives

1.1.2.1 Aim

To determine the Nutritional value of soyabeans based Daddawa and lucost beans based Daddawa.

1.1.2.2 The objectives of the present research are:

1) To determine proximate composition of locust beans and soya beans based Daddawa 

2) To determine the vitamin A and C content of locust beans and soya beans based Daddawa 

1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

1.2.1 Plant under study

1.2.1.1 Description 

African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G.Don and Parkia filicoidea Welw. ex Oliv.) is a multipurpose tree legume found in many African countries. The seeds, the fruit pulp and the leaves are used to prepare numerous foods and drinks, and to feed livestock and poultry (Diawara 2000).


  Figure 1.1: Locust beans  and soya beans  Daddawa from yauri 2019

1.2.1.2 Morphology

African locust bean is a medium-sized legume tree that reaches 20-30 m high. It has a dense, widely spreading umbrella-shaped crown and a cylindrical trunk that can reach 130 cm in diameter, often branching low. The bark is longitudinally fissured, scaly between the fissures, thick, ash-grey to greyish-brown in colour. It exudes an amber gum when cut. The leaves are alternate and bipinnately compound, 30-40 cm long, bearing up to 17 pairs of pinnae. Its beanets are numerous (13-60/pinna), subopposite, 8-30 mm long x 1.5-10 mm wide, rounded or obtuse at apex, glabrous but slightly ciliate near apex. The inflorescence is held on a long (10-35 cm) drooping peduncle. It is biglobose, showy, red in colour, and it looks like an electric bulb. The flower head is 4.5-7 cm long x 3.5-6 cm broad and it has a strong pungent smell. The many flowers are either bisexual, sterile or nectar-bearing. Bisexual flowers are pentamerous, 1-1.4 cm long, and corolla lobes are fused at their base. Sterile flowers are shorter and are borne near the peduncle, in the upper part of the inflorescence, and their nectar is attractive to bats that pollinate the flowers. The flowers begin to open at dusk, close and wilt at dawn, lasting only a single night. The fruit is a linear, glabrous and smooth, indehiscent pod that becomes brown at maturity. It is 12-30 (-35) cm long x 1.5-2.5 cm wide and contains up to 23 seeds embedded in a yellowish mealy pulp. The seeds are globose-ovoid, 5-15 mm, smooth and glossy dark in colour. There are about 2800-6700 seeds/kg. The seeds are hard coated and can remain viable up to 8 years (Orwa et al., 2009; NRC, 2006; Sina et al., 2002; Hopkins, 1983).

1.2.1.3 Uses of locust beans tree

African locust bean is a multipurpose tree. The seeds, pods, fruit pulp and leaves are edible and used as cooking or drinking ingredients. The tree is particularly valued for its fermentescible seeds. They are fermented to prepare a condiment that is called "soumbala", "dawadawa", "netetu" or "afinti" that is a strongly pugent as French cheese. This condiment used for sauce and soup seasoning is one of the most important commercial products traded in western Africa. Ground with moringa leaves, the seeds are ingredients for sauces and doughnuts. They can be roasted to make a coffee substitute known as "Sudan coffee".

In the mature pod, seeds are surrounded by a quantitatively important mucilaginous pulp which is separated from the seeds when they are collected. This mealy pulp is traditionally consumed as fresh food by local African populations (Campbell-Platt, 1980; Felker, 1981). It makes valuable baby food and is used to make a refreshing drink. The leaves can be boiled, mixed with cereal flour and eaten as vegetable. Flower buds are edible and added to salads (Orwa et al., 2009; Sina et al., 2002).

Fruit pulp, foliage and seeds of the African locust bean can be used to feed livestock and poultry. The fruit pulp and the seeds, once processed to remove antinutritional factors, can be included in livestock feed. The leaves provide useful though not very palatable fodder. Their usefulness is increased by the fact that they can be harvested during the dry season when feed is scarce. However, it should be mixed with other feed because their mineral content is too low. The flowers are attractive to bees and a good source of nectar. The African locust bean trees are suitable for beehives.

The wood is used in light constructions, poles, mortars, and many kinds of furniture and utensils. It is valuable firewood and provides pulp to make paper. The bark has many traditional uses in ethnomedicine. A root decoction is reported to treat coccidiosis in poultry. Green pods are used as fish poison to catch fish in rivers. African locust bean trees are used as ornamental. They are useful soil improvers and their leaves provide green manure (Sina et al., 2002).

1.2.1.4 Distribution 

African locust bean is native to tropical Africa. It occurs in open savannah woodlands, in bush fallow and wooded farmland where cultivation is semi-permanent, in areas ranging from tropical forests with high and well-distributed rainfall, to arid zones (Orwa et al., 2009; Sina et al., 2002). It was introduced as a food plant into the West Indies and is now naturalized in Haiti. It has also been introduced into Sao Tomé by the Portuguese (Hopkins, 1983).

African locust bean is found between 5°N and 15°N, from the Atlantic coast in Senegal to southern Sudan and northern Uganda. It grows from sea level up to an altitude of 1350 m and prefers regions where mean annual temperature range is about 26-28°C (Sina et al., 2002). African locust bean grows in areas corresponding to a wide range of annual rainfall with a marked dry season of 5-7 months. In Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone and Guinea, it grows where average annual rainfall range is between 2200 and 4500 mm. African locust bean can withstand arid zones with less than 400 mm rainfall (Orwa et al., 2009). It is very tolerant of poor soil conditions though it prefers deep well-drained and fertile soils (FAO, 2017; Sina et al., 2002). It can grow on rocky slopes, stony ridges or sandstone hills as well as on shallow lateritic soils (Sina et al., 2002). African locust bean trees are deeply taprooted and have the ability to restrict transpiration, which makes them able to withstand drought conditions. African locust bean is a fire-resistant heliophyte (FAO, 2017; Orwa et al., 2009; Sina et al., 2002).

In West Africa, the fermented seeds of African locust bean are commercially traded within the region and their use has been described since the 14th century. In northern Nigeria the annual production of African locust bean seeds is estimated at 200,000 t (Sina et al., 2002).

1.2.1.5 Soybeans iru

Soy-iru (Soy-daddawa) is a food flavouring condiment prepared by fermenting whole soybean. It is widely consumed by the people of Benue and Plateau States of Nigeria and its consumption is now extending to the southern part of Nigeria. Pederson (1971) describe fermentation as a complex chemical transformation of organic substances brought about by the catalytic action of enzymes either originally present or secreted extracellularly by the microorganisms fermenting the material. The microbiology of fermentation and some biochemical changes occurring during the production of this condiment have been reviewed (Odunfa, 1985).

Locus beans have been the traditional raw material for the production of iru (dadawa). Dadawa enhances good taste and also serve as a low cost protein source in diet of low income families (Odunfa, 1986). However, emphasis is been shifted to the use of soybean (Glycine max) as a substitute. Some reasons why soybean should substitute locust bean have been reviewed (Oyeleke, 1984) among which are:

There is a consistence reduction in the number of parkia trees as a result of land clearing for mechanized farming.

The tree needs several years to mature.

Separating seed from the pulp could be time consuming.

Cotyledons take too long to cook.

Decorticating seeds is laborious and a lot of nutrient is lost in the process.

Soybean appears to have higher nutrient than locust bean.

Chemical studies have been carried out to know the nutritive value of soy-iru, according to (Omafuvbe et al., 2002), fermented soybean has the following chemical composition as expressed by 100 g dry matter, crude protein 49.51, fat 31.46, crude fibre 3.49, ash 3.97, carbohydrate 15.06 and organic matter 96.03. It also contains appreciable amount of minerals.

The preparation of both soybean and locust bean condiments involve the natural fermentation of dehusked cooked seeds (Odunfa, 1985; Abiose et al., 1988; Barber and Achinewu, 1992). The traditional method of preparing soy-iru has been described (Omafuvbe et al., 2002). The product from such fermentation is sticky with a strong ammoniacal smell (Ogbadu and Okagbue, 1988).





                                                          














                                                     CHAPTER TWO

2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 

2.1 Materials  v 

  The glass wires used were presented in table2.1

Table2.0: List of glass wares used

Glass wares                                   Capacity (Millilitres)                 Manufacturer

Conical flask                                           500                                  Gerhard/Durham, England

Beaker                                                      250                                 Gerhard/Durham, England 

Burette                                                      50                                   Gerhard/Durham, England

Round bottom flask                                 500                                  Gerhard/Durham, England

Volumetric flask                                       50                                  Gerhard/Durham, England















The instrument used were present in table 2.1

Table 2.1: List of instrument used

Instrument                                             Type/ Capacity                  Manufacture/Source

Digestion block                                       1030 model                  Teccator/Taby, Sweden

Furnace                                                                                   Lenton/Ely, Eglang

Kjeldahl apparatus                             Glass                    Gerhard/Durham, Egland

Oven                                Lenton/Ely, Eglang

Weighing balance    163/2kg                         College/Swazihill/Swaziland

Specrophotometer      6100 model        Jenway/Garforth, Englan

Dessicator       128mm      Jambu Pershad/Mumbai, india


The reagents and chemicals used were presented in table2. 3

Table 2.2: List of reagents and chemicals used

Chemicals                               Grade                  Purity (100%)              Source

Conc. H2SO4                    Analytical reagent      97.0                Fissions, Wells, England

Sodium hydroxide             Analytical reagent      98.                  BHD, Durham, England

Boric acid                            GPR                          99.8                  Hopkings &  Williams, USA

Hydrochloric acid                GPR                          37.0                  M&B, Wells, England

Nitric acid                            GPR                          86.0                   BHD, Durham, England

Perchloric acid                     GPR                     99.6                Vertex, Mumbai, India

Keys:

 GPR= General purpose reagent,    

 BHD= British 

2.1.1 Research samples:

Collection and Preparation

The locust beans and soya beans-based daddawa were obtained from yauri market in Kebbi states, Nigeria. The samples were identified and authenticated at Biochemistry department, Kebbi state university of science and technology, Aliero, Nigeria. The sample was oven-dried and ground into powder and use for analyses. 

2.1.2 Chemicals: All chemicals used in this study were of analytical grade. 

2.2 Analytical Methods: 

The proximate and elemental analysis of locust beans and soya beans-based daddawa were carried out using the method of AOAC (2000). Determination of vitamin C and A, were carried out using the method of Rutkowsiki and Grzegorczyk (2007).

2.2.1 Determination of the proximate chemical composition: The determination of moisture, fat, crude fiber, and ash were carried out according to AOAC (2000) methods. 

2.2.1.1 Moisture determination: 

The direct oven method (AOAC, 2000) was used for this analysis. 10g for each sample was weighed using electric balance and place in a petri-dish for known weight. This sample was then allowed to dry in oven set at 180oC for 8 hours. The dish and sample were cooled in desiccators and weighed. This procedure was repeated until a constant mass of each sample was obtained. The moisture content was calculated as following:

%moisture content =

2.2.1.2 Ash determination: 

Ash was determine by the method of ADAC (2000). 20g of each sample was weighed in separated crucible and placed in muffle furnace and then ashed at 560OC for 3 hours. The sample were removed from the furnace and cooled in a desiccators. The sample were then weight and ash content was calculated as follows:

AC (%) = x 100    

Where: 

AC =Ash content  

W1 = Weight of empty crucible 

W2 = Weight of crucible with ash 

Ws = Weight of dry sample 

2.2.1.3 Crude protein (CP)

2.0g of each sample were weighed in to digestive tube, one digestion tablet and 20ml  H2SO4 were added and digested at  420OC. Using digestion block then the sample was digested, 100 led and diluted with 80ml of distilled water for 4 hours. The sample was distilled with NaOH and boric acid and titrated using 0.1N HCL. 


2.2.1.4Fat determination (ether extract):  

The ether exract was determine using soxhlet apparatus. 2g of the sample was weight in to a thimble and 200ml of petroleum ether was measured in to a conical flask. The solution was heated at 45Oc at 1 hour interval for 2 hours, the flask was removed, reweighed and percentage fat sample was determined. 

FC (%) = X 100        

Where: 

  FC = Fat content 

 W1 = Weight of extraction flask 

 W2 = Weight of extraction flask with oil 

 Wt = Weight of sample 

2.2.1.5 Determination of crude fibre:  Two grams of an air dried fat-free sample, were transferred to dry 600 ml beaker. The sample was digested with 200 ml of 1.25% (0.26N) sulphuric acid for 30 minute, and the beaker was periodically swirled. The contents were removed and filtered through Buchner funnel, and washed with boiling water. The digestion was repeated using 200 ml of 1.25% (0.23 N) NaOH for 30 minutes, and treated similarly as above. After the last washing, the residue was transferred to ashing dish, and dried in an oven at 1050C overnight then cooled and weighed (W1). The dried residue was ignited in a muffle-furnace at 5500C for three hours to a constant  weight, and allowed to cool, then reweighed (W2) and the crude fiber% was calculated as follows:  

Crude fiber (CF%) = X  100      

Where:

W1 = Weight of crucible  

W2 = Weight of crucible with ashed sample 

 Ws = Weight of sample 

2.2.1.6 Determination of carbohydrates: Carbohydrates were calculated by difference as follows: 

Carbohydrates% = 100  (Ash% + moisture% +crude Protein%+oil%+crude fiber %) 

2.4 VITAMIN  CONTENTS

2.4.1.1 DETERMINATION OF VITAMIN A (Rutkowki et al. 2008)

PRINCIPLE: This is based on the addition of ethanol to break up complex and permit vitamin A to partition into the nearly colourless retain is measured spectrophetometrically at 450nm. 

REAGENTS 

1.   95% of Ethanol

2.   pet either 

3.   STd vitamin A

PROCEDURE: 0.5g of the sample was dissolved in 10ml of distilled water and allow to stand for one Hour, filter using filter paper.

Table 2.3

Reagent

Test

STD

Blank


Sample 

1ml

-

-


95% ethanol

1ml

-

-


Vitamin A, Std.

     

-

2ml

-


Pet ether

2ml

2ml

4ml


Mix, and centrifuge for 10 minutes at 2000rpm. 1ml of supernatant was measured at 450nm against reagent blank 

Calculation: % vitamin A (mg%)

Absorbance of sample     x concentration of Std           

Absorbance of standard                                                                                                                                                                                                              

2.4.1.2 Determination of vitamin C (Rutkowski et al 2008)

PRINCIPLE: The method is based on reaction with phophotungstate (PR) to form a green colour which major at 700nm.

REAGENTS: 

1.  150g sodium tungstate, 60g sodium hydrogen phosphate dissoived in 240ml DI waters

2.  145ml of 3.7M H2SO4  by heating for 2 Hours

ASCORBIC ACID STD- 0.1g of Ascorbic acid was dissolved in 100ml of 50Mm/mol oxalic acid.

PROCEDURE: 0.5g of sample was dissolved in 10ml of distilled water and incubate for 30 minutes, at 37,,filter using  whatman no. 1 filter paper

Table 2.4   

Reagent

Test

STD

Blank


Sample 

1ml

-

-


STD Ascorbic Acid

-

1ml

-


DH2O

  -   


-

1ml


PR

1ml

1ml

1ml


Mix, and incubate for 30 minutes at room temperature then centrifuge at 2000rpm for 10 minbutes and measure the absorbance at 700nm. 

Calculation:% Ascorbic acid (mg%) 

Absorbance of sample     x concentration of STD           

Absorbance of standard                                        




                                                          

















CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Results

3.1 Result description on proximate composition of Locust beans and soya beans based Daddawa

Table 1.0 show that there is significant different (P≤0.05) in Moisture, Ash, Crude fibre, crude fat and carbohydrate content of both the lucost and soya beans based Daddawa.  While crude fiber content of both the lucost and soya beans based Daddawa are statistically similar.

Table 3.0 Result on proximate composition of Locust and soybeans based Daddawa


S/N

Proximate (%)

Lucost beans

Soybeans


1

Moisture


6.38 ±0.10

10.52 ±0.16


2

Ash


18.20 ±0.19

29.78 ±0.33 


3

Crude fibre


       23.56 ±0.06 

23.36 ±0.04 


4

Crude protein


30.72 ±0.12

         35.90 ±0.17 


5

Crude fat


2.45 ±0.06 

        2.17 ±0.16 


6

Carbohydrate

20.61 ±3.19

9.24 ±7.20 




Values are represented as mean ±standard deviation.Values having the same subscript letter are significantly different (P≤0.05).

                              

Fig 3.0; Representative Histogram of ptoximate composition of Locust beans and Soya beans.














3.2 Result description of vitamin content of lucost bean and soya bean based Daddawa.

The vitamin A content of both the lucost bean and soybeans based Daddawa ranged from 12.23 to 20.18mg/dl, and that of the vitamin C ranged from 79.54 to 31.82mg/dl. A significant increase was observed in the vitamin A and C content of the soybeans based Daddawa (P≤0.05).

    Table 3.1 Result of vitamin content of lucost bean and soybean based Daddawa.


S/N

Vitamins

(Mg/dl)

Lucost bean

Soybean 



1

Vitamin A

12.23 ±1.15

20.18 ±0.92



2

Vitamin C

79.54 ±4.96 

        31.82 ±2.27 



Values are represented as mean ±standard deviation.

Values carrying different subscript letters are statistically different (P≤0.05).



Fig 3.1; Representative Histogram of Vitamin A and C content of Locust beans and Soya beans. Value represents Mean ± SD of triplicate experiment. P values 0.5 (*) and P0.001 (***) were considered statically significant.

                                                


















                                                     CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Discussion, conclusions and recommendations

4.1 Discussions 

Proximate Analysis

The proximate analysis showed that all the two condiments have high moisture content, particularly the soya beans daddawa (10.52%) which can encourage microbial growth and enhance spoilage by organisms such as bacteria and fungi, if not properly stored, although, it was previously reported by Kolapo et al. (2007) that fatty acids content in soya bean daddawa are more likely to deteriorate faster than those of locust bean daddawa. The protein contents is higher in soya bean daddawa relative to locust bean daddawa and cude fiber content is higher in Locust beans daddawa as previously reported by (Omafuvbe et al., 2000,; Ganiyu, 2016, Dosumu, 2016). Dietary fiber is important in regulation of digestion and intestinal absorption of nutrients, indirectly preventing obesity (Farrell, 1978; Van Italie, 1978). Protein is critical in both biochemical and physiological processes. Hence Soya beans daddawa may serve as a source of protein in the diet of a poor family especially in rural areas (Diawara, 2000) where protein energy malnutrition is common. The carbohydrate contents of locust bean daddawa is higher than those of soya bean daddawa, where as the ash content was observed to be higher in Soya beans daddawa. These values were in accordance with the findings of Ikenebomeh et al, (1986). Carbohydrate and fat are respectively the primary and secondary sources of energy to the biological systems.

Vitamins

Locust and soya beans-based daddawa appear to have an appreciable amount of vitamins A and C. The higher content of vitamin A in fermented food substances could be attributed to the fermentation processes carried out by microorganisms as previously reported by Steinkraus (Steinkraus, 1999). Vitamin A helps in reproductive process, maintenance of good eye sight and enhances resistance to infections while vitamin C is critical in collagen synthesis, antioxidant property, maintenance of connective tissues and promoting the process of wound healing (Webe et al., 1995; Green, 1994; Eskild, 1994). Locust bean daddawa has the highest fat content, which also makes it a source of fat soluble vitamins.

4.2 Conclusions

 Based on the results obtained in the present study, the following conclusions can be drawn:

Soya and locust bean-based daddawa sold in Yauri LGA, Kebbi state Nigeria contain significant amount of nutrients such as protein, fats, fibre and vitamins A and C can enrich the diet in addition to flavor enhancement. Consumption of daddawa may therefore be a useful strategy to overcome protein energy malnutrition, especially in rural areas where malnutrition is common.

4.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations can be drawn from the present study:

It is recommended to carry out a research work on mineral elements and some ani-nutritional factors of these two condiments to confirm for their nutritional value.

 A resech should be conducted on the anti-oxidant properties of vitamin C present in Locust beasn and Soya bean Daddawa





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