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Use Of Equipment, Machines And Microscope To Carry Out Basic Microbiological, Hematological, Bacteriological, Parasitological, Virology Investigation Were Acquainted

Use Of Equipment, Machines And Microscope To Carry Out Basic Microbiological, Hematological, Bacteriological, Parasitological, Virology Investigation Were Acquainted

Use Of Equipment, Machines And Microscope To Carry Out Basic Microbiological, Hematological, Bacteriological, Parasitological, Virology Investigation Were Acquainted.


CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The Students’ Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a skill acquisition program of various tertiary institutions for all Nigerians which is aimed at providing the students with an opportunity to apply his/her knowledge in real work experiment. It therefore seeks to bridge the gap between theory and practical.

In Nigeria, to have an approved requirement for graduation, SIWES must be included. It creates avenue that links the practice of science, technology and engineering, medical science, agricultural and other professional programs offered in Nigerian tertiary institutions.

The SIWES is aimed at exposing students to machinery, industrial equipment and professional work methods. The scheme mainly involves the students, the university authority and the industry; as such it is a tripartite program.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE SIWES

SIWES is a program that was established in 1978 by the National University Commission (NUC) which is aimed at exposing students and bridging the gap between theoretical aspects required in tertiary institutions and the practical aspects in the establishment applied.

The program was initiated by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF). ITF was established in 1971 by the decree no. 47 of October, 1971 as the Federal Government policy of transforming the economy of the nation from its predominant dependence of foreign expertise to a state of self-reliance through the training development of Nigeria that would be competent enough to perform the specialized skills required to manage the essential sectors of the economy.

SIWES programs usually commence at the third year of a four (4) year course and also at the fourth year of a five (5) years course of various field of pure and applied sciences such as Engineering, Computer Sciences, Biological Sciences, Social Sciences, etc. SIWES program is normally undertaken in a period of three to six months.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF SIWES

The scheme has various aim and objectives which include:

To acquaint students with professional work methods obtainable in their various fields of endeavors, thereby boosting skills and enhancing work experience.

To bridge the gap between the theoretical and the practical aspects of scientific findings in our higher institutions.

To provide a platform in which students are exposed to the scientific and highly technical nature of their working environments in relation to the machineries, simple and complex ones.

To create an atmosphere in which enlisted employers in the SIWES scheme contribute to the quality of education and its development in Nigeria.

To revive the urge and the need for research projects and findings in our educational institutions and in the mind of young students.

To develop the skills of the students by exposing them to different methods and techniques as well as their possible substitutes in working situations. 

To provide an avenue for students in the Nigerian universities to acquire industrial skills and experience in their course work. 

To expose students to work methods and technique involve in handling equipment and machines that may not be available in the university. 

To create employment opportunity for student after graduation. 

To provide opportunity for students to apply their theoretical knowledge in real work situation must likely face after graduation.




CHAPTER TWO

2.1 PLACE OF ATTACHMENT

General Hospital Aliero,Kebbi State

2.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GENERAL HOSPITAL ALIERO

General Hospital Aliero is located at Sokoto road, near Senator Adamu Aliero’s House. Kebbi State along Jega road. It has different department which includes; Administrative unit, male ward, female ward, pediatric ward, maternity ward, theatre, pharmacy, X-ray department, laboratory department e.t.c.

In 1991, it was upgraded to the status of a hospital. The Kebbi State Government established a hospital as a partner in 1995. However, this assistance suffered setback during the eight years tenure of former Governor of Kebbi State Alhaji Muhammad Adamu Aliero.

2.3 THE LABORATORY DEPARTMENT

The laboratory department is an established medical diagnostic setting with different modern facilities in it. The department is at the moment headed by a senior Medical Laboratory Scientist who coordinates the activities of the various sections of the department. The head of the department is responsible for organizing all the clinical services.

The department is divided into the following sections:

The Hematology unit

The Microbiology unit

The Serology unit

The Biochemistry unit

2.4 LABORATORY SAFETY PRECAUTION

Wear laboratory coat, fastened at the front, at all times.

Wear close fitting disposable plastic gloves or thin rubber gloves when handling any specimens. 

Remove gloves when using the telephone or photocopier.

Cuts, especially on the hands, must be covered with a waterproof dressing prior to starting work.

Never take personal items such as combs, cosmetics or handbags into the laboratories.

Never take food, drink or cigarette into the laboratories.

Never perform any action which may bring your hands into contact with your face, eyes, mouth, such as eating smoking or adjusting contact with lenses.

Keep work benches clear of clutter.

Remove laboratory coat and gloves and wash hands before leaving the laboratory.

Clerical/administrative staff notifies a member of the technical staff when a specimen container leaks or is broken. 

To avoid mechanical hazard, do not wear pendant jewelry in the laboratory; ensure that long hair is contained and do not allow personal clotting to protrude beyond the sleeves of the laboratory coat.

2.5 SOME MATERIALS USED IN THE LABORATORY AND THEIR DESCRIPTION 

2.5.1 SAMPLE BOTTLES

These are bottles made up of plastic materials used for collection and storage of patient sample before carrying out the test required. The long bottle is used for the collection of sputum while the shorter one is used for collection of urine, stool sample etc.


Fig. 1.2.Sample bottle.

2.5.2 Centrifuge

This is a piece of laboratory equipment driven by a motor which spins liquid sample at high speed. It separates (supernatant) mixed liquids such as blood sample, urine etc. based on their molecular weight. The sample is usually spin for about 3-10 minutes at 1000 – 4000rpm (Revolution per meter) depending on the type of specimen.


Fig.1.3 Centrifuge

2.5.3 Microhaematocrit Reader:

This is a calibrated rectangular steel use for reading of any spin capillary tube with blood sample. This device is used for reading parked cell volume (PCV) and is read below the buffy cut then the value is converted to decimal .The function of haematocrit reader is enable the lab scientist to know whether a patient/client is anaemic or non anaemic, so as to carryout blood transfusion as soon as possible when the blood goes below the normal range.


Fig. 1.4 Microheamatocrit reader. (Leonard, 2005).

2.5.4 REAGENTS & CHEMICALS

Regents and Chemicals used in the laboratory are believed to be pure and also possess accurate composition. These chemicals and regents are extensively used as working fluid and solvent. The products are processed in strict conformity with highest industrial standards. Some of the reagents/ chemicals used include:

(a) Antisera



Fig. 1.2. Different reagents used in the laboratory (Shane, 2007).

CHAPTER  THREE

3.0 SAMPLES COLLECTION AND LABELLING

3.1 INTRODUCTION

The following information must be legibly recorded on a label affixed in an irreversible 

fashionto the sample container.

Patient full name.

Medical record number or laboratory number.

Date and time when sample was obtained.

Sample source or type of sample.

Signature or initials of the person, who identified the patient, collected the sample and labeled it.

Sample will not be accepted if the information on the specimen label does not match the information on the accompanying requisition. Proper sample collection is vital to ensure an accurate test result.

3.1.1 MATERIALS/APPARATUS:

Syringe, Tourniquet, Cotton wool, Urine container, stool   bottle, EDTA Container (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Container).

3.2 PROCEDURE:

3.2.1 COLLECTION Of BLOOD SAMPLE

Blood require for hematological investigation can be collected from the capillary or vein.

The Capillary Blood Sample is used when small quantity of blood is needed, it can be collected by selecting a suitable site for puncturing e.g. the thumb of the finger, which will be clean with cotton wool moistened with methylated spirit for sterilization. Punch the thumb with a new needle. Apply a little pressure to the punctured site for blood to flow out freely. 

While the Venous Blood Sample collection is used if a large quantity of blood is needed, thus: using a tourniquet tie the arm for easy location of the vein, sterilized the skin over the vein with cotton wool moistened with methylated spirit, then using 5ml or 2ml syringe, pierce the vein and draw the appropriate mills of the blood, loose the tourniquet and place a cotton wool on the area and then carefully remove the needle.

3.2.2 COLLECTION Of URINE SAMPLE

All urine samples are collected as clean catch urine sample, the first morning urine is preferred, and that will be put inside a urine container.

3.3 HAEMATOLOGY

From etymological root, “Haema” means blood and “logy” means study. This is the study of blood. The various examinations or investigations carried out on blood samples in this section include: Blood collection, PCV, blood grouping, Antenatal Screening etc.

3.3.1 HEMOGLOBIN (HB) AND PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV)

3.3.2 Aim: 

To Determine the Hemoglobin Content of a Patient’s Blood In g/dl And Percentage (%).

3.3.3 Introduction: 

A haemoglobin is a substances contained within the red blood cells (erythrocyte) and responsible for their color, composed of the pigment hem (a non-containing porphyrin) linked to the protein globins. Hemoglobin has the unique property of combining reversibly with oxygen and is the medium by which oxygen is transported within the body. It takes up oxygen as blood passes through the lungs and releases it as blood passes through the tissue. Blood normally contains 12 to 18g/dl of hemoglobin.

While packed cell volume (PCV) is the volume of red cells (erythrocytes) in the blood expressed as a fraction of the total volume of the blood. The packed cell volume is determined by centrifuging blood in a tube and measuring the height of the red cell column as a fraction of the total. Automated instruments calculate packed cell volume as the product of the erythrocyte count and measured the mean of red cell volume.

3.3.4 Materials/Apparatus: 

Blood sample, capillary tube, Microhaematocrit reader/ PCV chart Centrifuge and Plastacine.

3.3.5 Procedure: 

Collect the blood sample with capillary tube, seal one end of the capillary tube with Plastacine. Place it into a centrifuge and close, centrifuge for 5 minutes to separate plasma hemoglobin content from serum, read out the result using the PCV chart from 0 level of the plasma to match 100 levels from the serum.

3.3.6 Result:

S/N

PCV

HB (g/dl)

PCV/3%=g/dlx7


01.

10

3.3

23.1


02.

30

10.0

70


03.

46

15.3

107.1


Normal Range = 11.5 to 18.0

From the above result: -     S/NO. 1. = Anemic.

S/NO. 1. = Anemic.

S/NO. 2. = Normal.

S/NO. 3. = Polycytheamia.

3.3.7 Discussion

In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin is low in a hemolytic and aplastic crisis; anemia can become life-threatening. The thin between films show marked Poikilocytosis with sickle cells, nucleated red cells and target cells.

Polycytheamia (erythrocytosis) is associated with a raised haemoglobin, PCV and red cells count (valves above these normal for age and gender) in similar way to hemoglobin levels, PCV valves vary according to age, gender and altitude. PCV valves are released in anemia, increase valves are found when there is loss of plasma in severe burns, dehydration and in dengue hemorrhagic fever.

3.4 BLOOD GROUPING

3.4.1 Aim: 

To Determine The Individual Corresponding Blood Group.

3.4.2 Introduction: 

Any one of the many types into which a person’s blood may be classified, based on the presence or absence of certain inherited antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Blood of one group contains antibodies in the serum that react against the cells of other groups.

There are more than 30 blood group systems, one of the most important of which is the ABO system. This system is based on the presence or absence of antigens A and B, blood of groups A and B contains antigens A and B respectively, group AB contains both antigens A and B, while group O has neither of the antigens, blood of group A contains antibody B, blood group B contains antibody A, blood group AB has neither of the antibodies and blood group O has both of the antibodies. A person whose blood contains both of these antibodies cannot receive a transfusion of blood containing the corresponding antigens.

Agglutination (clumping):- This is the sticking together by serum antibodies called agglutinins of such microscopic antigenic particles as red blood cells or bacteria so that they form a visible clump.

3.4.3 Materials/Apparatus: 

Blood sample, Antibody A (blue in color), Antibody B (yellow in color), Antibody D (transparent), Antibody serum kids, Tile and Stirrer.

3.4.4 Procedure:  

Make three (3) drops of the blood sample on a clean tile; add a drop of anti-A to the first drop of blood, anti-B to the second drop and anti-D (Rhesus factor) to the third drop. Mix each of them properly with a stirrer. Rock the tile for 2 to 3 minutes and notice agglutination reaction.

3.4.5 Result: 

The result can be interpreted based on the agglutination reaction summarized below:-

Anti- A

Anti- B

Anti- D

Blood Group

Rhesus Factor


+

-

+

A

Positive


-

+

+

B

Positive


+

+

+

AB

Positive


-

-

+

O

Positive


+

-

-

A

Negative


-

+

-

B

Negative


+

+

-

AB

Negative


-

-

-

O

Negative




3.4.6 Discussion

A person ABO blood group depends on the A, B, or O gene inherited from each parent as follows:

GENES INHERITED (GENOTYPE)

BLOOD GROUP (PHENOTYPE)


A & A

A & O*

Group A


B & B

B & O*

Group B


A & B

Group AB


O & O

Group O


A & B genes are dominant, the recessive O gene is expressed only when A & B dominant genes are absent. A person who is group O must be of genotype OO.

3.5 BLOOD CROSS MACTHING

Blood cross matching in transfusion medicine refers to the complex testing that is performed prior to a blood transfusion, to determine if the donor’s blood is compatible with the blood of a recipient or to identify matches for organ transplants.

Cross matching is usually performed only after other, less complex test have not excluded compatibility. Blood compatibility has many aspects and is determining not only by the blood types (A, B, AB, O) but also by blood factor (Rhesus).

3.5.1 Discussion

The Purpose of Compatibility Testing (cross matching) is to prevent a transfusing reaction by ensuring the ABO group of the blood to be transfused is compatible with the patients ABO group. There are no detectable irregular antibodies in the patient’s serum that will react with the donor’s red cells causing their destruction or reducing their normal survival.

3.6 BLOOD TRANSFUSION

Blood transfusion is the injection of a volume of blood obtained from a healthy person (the donor) into the circulation of patient (the recipient) whose blood is deficient in quantity or quality through accident, diseases or  during major surgical operations in which much blood is likely to be lost. Direct transfusion from one person to another is rarely performed; usually packs of carefully stored blood of different blood group are kept in blood bank for use as necessary. During transfusion the blood is allowed to drop under gravity through a needle inserted into the recipient veins.

Before a blood transfusion is given, there are many steps taken to ensure quality of the blood products, compatibility and safety to the recipient. All donated bloods are tested for HIV, Hepatitis, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL), and Hepatitis C (HCV). e.t.c.




























3.6.1 Discussion

The table below shows how the various blood groups can be exchange during blood transfusion.

DONORS

RECIPIENT



A+

A-

B+

B-

AB+

AB-

0+

0-


A+

+

+

-

-

+

-

-

-


A-

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

-


B+

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

-


B-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-


AB+

-

-

+

-

+

-

-

-


AB-

-

-

-

+

-

+

-

-


0+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-


0-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+



AB= universal recipient

O= universal donor.

3.7 MICROBIOLOGY  SECTION 

Microbiology unit: This is a study that deal with microscopic microorganism that cannot be seen with the naked eye unless with the help of microscope. Microbiology section comprises of parasitology unit where MP test is carried out, serology unit where Hepatitis, Pregnancy test and widal test are carried out.

3.7.1 PARASITOLOGY UNIT

Parasitology: This is the branch of science that deals with the study of parasites, parasitic infections, their diagnosis and treatment. A parasite is an organism that is mainly dependent on another organism, referred to as host, for all or part of its life cycle and requirements Malaria parasite test can be carried out in this unit.

3.7.1.1 MALARIA PARASITE (MP) TEST USING MRDT CASSETTE

3.7.1.1.1 Aim 

To detect the presence of plasmodium falciparum.

3.7.1.1.2 Introduction

 Malaria is a disease been spread by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions. The causative parasite is the plasmodium and the vector is the female anopheles mosquito and it is transmitted through blood. It is diagnosed base on the observation of the trophozoite in red blood.

3.7.1.1.3 Procedure

A drop of blood was collected from a patient, by prinking the thumb with a sterilized lancet, after cleaning with methylated spirit. The drop of blood was inserted in to the small portion of MRDT cassette and 2-3 drop of chasse buffer were flooded on the larger portion of the cassette. The result was recorded after 5 minutes.

 3.7.1.1.4 Observation/ Result

Positive – A line of any intensity (precisely red) from the test region and control region indicates a positive result. Meaning that person is having malaria.

Negative – A single line in the control region indicates a negative result.

Invalid – No line in the control region or no line in both control and test region indicates that the test should be repeated with a new test strip.

 3.8 SEROLOGY UNIT

Serology: This is the study of antigen-antibody reaction in-vitro. This involves the examination of serum for the confirmation of infection. E.g. widal test, pregnancy test etc.

3.8.1  WIDAL TEST

3.8.1.1 Aim: 

To detect the presence of typhoid fever

3.8.1.2 Introduction:  

Widal test is a test where by bacteria causing typhoid fever are mixed with serum containing specific antibodies obtained from an infected individual. It is a presumptive serological test for enteric fever or undulant fever, in case of salmonella infectious.

The widal test is positive, if TO antigen titre is more than 1:80 in an active infection or if TH antigen titre is more than 1:80 in past infection or in an immunized person.

A simple widal test is of little clinical relevance due to the number of cross reacting infectious, including malaria, if no other test is available.

3.8.1.3 Procedure:  

Collect about 2ml of  blood with syringe from the vein, put it in an EDTA container, centrifuge for 5 minutes, which will result in the separation of the serum from the plasma, using a micropipette, make a drop of the serum sample into eight (8) places of three (3) distance in a diameter on a clean tile, shake the reagent, and a drop of somatic Salmonellaparatyphi (Blue color:- OA, OB, OC, OD) to the first four (4) drops of the serum and also add a drop of flagella antigen (Red color:- HA, HB, HC, HD) to the second four (4) drops of the serum. Mix well with a disposable stirrer and rock the tile for 2 minutes and observed agglutination.

3.3.1.4 Result:

Presence of agglutination reaction within 2 minutes shows a positive test, while no agglutination reaction shows a negative test. And any titre value above 80 is considered positive for typhoid. e.g.

SALMONELLA  GROUP O

TITTRE OF AGGLUTINATION

RESULT


Salmonella group OA

1/80

Negative 


Salmonella group OB

1/160

Positive


Salmonella group OC

1/20

Negative


Salmonella group OD

1/320

Positive


SALMONELLA   GROUP H




Salmonella group HA

1/20

Negative


Salmonella group HB

1/320

Positive


Salmonella group HC

1/80

Negative


Salmonella group HD

1/160

Positive



3.8.2 HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN(HBsAg) and HEPATITIS C VIRUS

3.8.2.1 Aim: To determine the presence of hepatitis  b and c 

3.8.2.2 Introduction: 

Inflammation of the liver caused by viruses, toxic substances or immunological abnormalities. Infectious hepatitis is caused by viruses, several types of which have been isolated as specific cases of the diseases and can be detected by blood tests including hepatitis B and C.

3.8.2.3Materials: serum, hepatitis B and C strip, sample container, centrifuge, timer.

3.8.2.4Principle:

The HbsAg one step Hepatitis B surface Antigen Test strip (serum/plasma) is a qualitative, lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of HbsAg in serum or plasma. The membrane is pre-coated with anti- HbsAg antibodies on the test region of strip. During testing, the serum or plasma specimen reacts with the particle coated with anti-HbsAg antigen. The mixture migrates upward on the membrane chromatographically by action or reacts with anti- HbsAg antibodies of the membrane and generates a colored line. To serve as a procedural control, a color line will always appear in the control region indicating that proper volume of specimen has been added and membrane wicking has occurred.  

3.8.2.5Procedure 

Collect at least 1.5ml-2.0ml of blood or 3-4 drops of serum in a sample container. When read to test, open the pouch at the notch and remove the test strip.

Dip the strip with the arrow side pointing down into the specimen container for at least 10 seconds. Do not allow the specimen container reach above the level indicated by the arrow on the strip, meanwhile setup the timer.

Remove the strip from the specimen, and place it on a flat, dry surface. Read the test result in 15 minutes.

                                  

 Figure 14: serum                                                                Figure 15: strip

3.8.2.6 Result

Negative: if only the C band is developed, the test indicates that the level of HbsAg in the specimen in undetectable (lower than 2ng/ml). The result is negative.

Positive: if both C and T bands are developed, the test indicates that the specimen contains HbsAg at the level equal or higher than 2ng/ml the result is positive.

3.8.3 HEPATITIS C VIRUS TEST

3.8.3.1 Introduction:

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small, enveloped, positive – secs, single – stranded RNA virus. HCV is known to be the major cause of parental transmitted non –A, non B hepatitis, anybody to HCV is found in over 80%of patient with well – documented non A, non B- hepatitis.

3.8.3.2 Principle

The HCV one step hepatitis C virus Test strip ( serum / plasma) is a qualitative; membrane based immunoassay for the detection of antibody of HCV in serum or plasma. 

The membrane is coated with recombinant HCV antigen on the test line region of the strip. During testing, the serum or plasma specimen reacts with the Protein A coated particles. The mixture migrates upwards on the membrane chromatographically by capillary action to react with the combatant HCV antigen on the membrane and generate a colored line. presence of this colored line indicates positive result while its absence indicates a negative result. To serve as a procedural control, a colored line will always appear at the control line region indicating that proper volume of specimen has been and membrane wicking has occurred.

3.8.3.3 Result:  

If double bands appear on the test strip, that is test line and control line, shows a positive test for hepatitis, while if a single bands appear on the test strip that is only the control line, shows a negative test for hepatitis.

  C C C C

  T T T T

Positive            Negative Invalid    


3.8.4 PREGNANCY TEST

3.8.4.1  Aim:

To determine whether a woman is pregnant or not.

3.8.4.2 Introduction:  

A pregnancy test attempts to determine whether a woman is pregnant or not, markers that indicate pregnancy tests require sampling one of these substances.

During pregnancy the Human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) that stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the ovary and it is this progesterone that stimulates the uterus during pregnancy. This sample of urine is mixed with serum containing antibodies to HCG. 

In the absence of pregnancy, the antibodies will cause agglutination of the marker particles. If the urine is from pregnant women, the antibodies will be absorbed and no agglutination will occur, these tests may be positive as early as 30 days after the date of the last normal period and its 98% accurate.

Newer test using monoclonal antibody (beta HCG) are more easily interpreted, when carried out on serum rather than urine, these tests give ever earlier positive result.

3.8.4.3 Procedure: 

3.8.4.3.1 Using Urine Sample

Collect about 5ml of urine in a urine container, deep the urine test strip inside the urine for

about 2 to 3 minutes and determine the results.

3.8.4.3.2 Using Blood Sample

Collect about 2ml of blood with syringe and transfer it into an EDTA container, centrifuge for 5 minutes, which will result in the separation of the serum from the plasma, deep the test strip inside the serum for about 2 to 3 minutes and determine the result.

3.8.4.3.3 Result: When one or two stroke lines are observed i.e. either the control stroke or both the control and the test stroke.It is reported as negative or positive respectively. And when there is no stroke or the test stroke line appear alone, then the test is invalid.


Test strip for pregnancy test

3.8.4.3.4 Discussion

The specimen is applied to an absorbent pad. The antibody conjugate binds to the HCG in the specimen forming an HCG antibody antigen complex. This complex migrate by capillary action to the reaction zone where it binds to the anti-HCG antibody producing a colored band (usually pink rose color) in a negative test, no colored band is produced, unbound conjugate bands to the reagent in the control zone, producing a colored band, indicating a correctly performed test. A positive pregnancy test is therefore shown by colored band appearing in both the control and test zones. A negative test is shown by a colored band appearing only in the control zone.


3.8.5 RETROVIRAL SCREENING (HIV TEST USING UNI-GOLD)

This test is used to detect the presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the serum. This test is done to screen a person who has an unknown status. It is a test selected to screen donor blood for transfusion to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus. This methodology is also used to test those products at high risk for the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) such as homosexuals, intravenous drugs users, and others who have been exposed to unprotected sex, or blood products.

3.8.5.1 PRINCIPLE

Determine HIV-1/2: is an immune chromatographic test for the qualitative detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. Sample is added to the sample pad. As the sample migrates through the conjugate pad, it reconstitutes and mixes with the selenium colloid-antigen conjugate. This mixture continues to migrate through the solid phase to the immobilized recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides at the patient window.

       If antibodies to HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 are present in the sample, the antibodies bind to the antigen-selenium colloid and to the antigen at the patient window, forming a red line at the patient window site.

        If antibodies to HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 are absent, the antigen-selenium colloid flow past the patient window and no red line is formed at the patient window site.

3.8.5.2 MATERIALS AND REAGENT USED

1. Determine HIV-1/2 (test strip)

2. Sample (whole blood/ serum/plasma)

3. Latex gloves

4. Lancet/ syringe and needle

5. Cotton wool

6. Chase buffer

7. Centrifuge

3.8.5.3 PROCEDURE

The finger thumb of the patient was punctured with lancet and the first drop of blood was wiped away with cotton wool/ venous blood was collected from the patient.

The second drop of blood was applied on the sample port of the test strip/ two drops of the patient’s serum or plasma was dropped on the sample port of the test strip. 

Two drops of chase buffer was added to the blood on the sample port.

It was allowed to stay for10 minutes from the time of addition of chase buffer for the reaction to be completed.


Figure 10:  HIV test strip

3.8.5.4 CLINICAL INTERPRETATION OF RESULT

Positive – A line of any intensity (precisely pink) from the test region and control region indicates a positive result.

Negative – A single line in the control region indicates a negative result.

Invalid – No line in the control region or no line in both control and test region indicates that the test should be repeated with a new test strip.


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

4.1 SUMMARY

During the training period, I learned an aseptic way of collecting samples/specimens, labeling and storing. Identifications of various color, morphology and shape of some microorganisms that causes infectious diseases, the use of equipment, machines and microscope to carry out basic microbiological, hematological, bacteriological, parasitological, virology investigation were acquainted.

4.2  CONCLUSION

Industrial training has exposed me to the practical aspect of my course of study, it is clear that the IT has a great merit to me and to all students by exposing us to the practical application of the lessons learnt in our courses/disciplines.

4.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

The industrial training is an important phase in one’s human development because it brings out the hidden skills of a person. This has improved my outlook and self-confidence. Generally, attachment of this nature gives one a better insight into the main objective of his chosen career path. Hence, I recommended the industrial training to anyone wanting to explore his/her potentials and know the relevance of their respective field in the real working environment.


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