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Determination on the impact of nitrogen application on the growth of onion (allium cepa) in Aliero metropolis

Determination on the impact of nitrogen application on the growth of onion (allium cepa) in Aliero metropolis

Determination on the impact of nitrogen application on the growth of onion (allium cepa) in Aliero metropolis



CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Nitrogen (N2) is that element which applied to plants from soil and return back to soil from plants residues during decomposition process and in this way soil fertility remains maintained. Nitrogen occupies a conspicuous place in plant metabolism system. All Vital processes in plants are associated with protein of which nitrogen is an essential constituent (Massignam et al., 2009). Consequently to get more crop production, nitrogen application is indispensable and unavoidable. Nitrogen plays a key role in agriculture by increasing of crop yield (Massignam et al., 2009). Nitrogen not only enhances the yield but also improves the good   quality (Ullah et al., 2010). Optimum rate of (N:) increases photosynthesis process, leaf area   production, crop growth rate weight and height of the plant as well (Ahmed et al., 2009). Vegetable requires a high rate of nitrogen for growth and development. In Iran, farmers who applied   excesses nitrogen fertilizer to increase crop yield disturbed the equilibrium balance of nutrient elements in the soil, caused pollution, decreased crop quality and thus a great part of the nations resources became useless (Tehrani and Malakouti 1997). Nitrogen being a major food for plants is an essential constituent of protein (build from amino acids that involves in catalization of chemical responses and transportation of\ electrons)  and chlorophyll (enable the process of photosynthesis) present in many major portions of the plant body (Bloom, 2015). Nitrogen plays a most important role in various Physiological processes. It imparts dark-green color in plants, promotes leaves, stem and other vegetative part's growth and development. Moreover, it also stimulates root growth (Hemerly, 2016). Nitrogen produce rapid early growth, improve fruit quality, enhances the growth of  vegetables, increases protein content of fodder crops; It encourages the uptake and utilization of other nutrients including potassium, phosphorous and controls overall growth of plant (Bloom, 2015). Commonly, the deficiency symptoms 1irst appear on older leaves then eat senescence starts and excessive application of nitrogen has adverse effects on plant growth, promotes extra dark-green color on the leaves, and makes succulents the enter growth and favors less fruit quantity with less quality. Overuse of N2B causes excess Vegetative growth particularly in tropical areas. Fertilizer plays a vital role in proper growth and development of lettuce. Fertilizer application in appropriate time, appropriate dose and proper method is the prerequisite of crop cultivation (Islam, 2003).

Generally, chemical fertilizers increase the growth and yield but excessive application or chemical fertilizers in crop production causes health hazards, create problem to the environment including the pollution of soil, air and water (Ahmed el al., 20099). Nitrogen is being essential nutrient effects plant growth, fruiting and yield of cotton. Nitrogen levels had significant differences and yield components and seed cotton yield (Boquet et al., B1994). Nitrogen 1O0kg per hectare produced more seed cotton yield due to more number of monopodium branches (where from vegetative parts develops) and symposium branches (where from reproductive parts develops), bolls per plant, average boll weight and 100 cotton seed weight. 100kg nitrogen per hectare IS recommended (Nadeem et al., 2010). For sugarcane crops, nitrogen IS also backbone. It improves the vegetative parts and thus Increases the cane weight. China and India obtain doublet yield, because of their recommendation application of nitrogen is about s00Kg per hectare. In other countries, N2is usually applied at the rate of 150 to 200kg per hectare.  Yield and quality constituents of Sugarcane were declared significant through increasing rate of N2 at 195.5kg per hectare. In further 299kg nitrogen per hectare determined adverse effect on the quality of sugarcane was recorded poor (Hemalatha, 2015). Among oil seed crops mustard and sunflower are widely cultivated throughout the country. Nitrogen at the rate of 180kg per hectare significantly increases yield of sunflower crop in semiarid conditions (Nasim et al., 2012).  Nitrogen 1S not an Clement which is useful for a specific crop or providing limited results for a particular crop. t 1S great lood for every living plant. Nitrogen requirement of horticultural crops is valuable, but its role some time becomes hidden specially in ornamental and large fruit tree crops, mainly due to lack of knowledge and awareness in Pakistan (Satapathy and Banik, 2002). Proper rate of Na is essential for improvement of horticultural crops. In this Sector, the major cops are citrus, mango, onion and potato in the country. However, vegetables including chilies, tomato, turnip, okra, carrot, cauliflower, peas, tinda gourd, garlie, radish, cucumber, brinjal etc are also cultivated at a wider range. From the floricultural point of view, the flowers like, marigold, calendula officinal, bougainvillea and rose are important crops (Satapathy and Banik, 2002).

Nitrogen takes good place for enhancement of yield and quality of mango fruit. Application of N2 fertilizer to mango tree markedly increased the number of fruit per tree, pulp content as well as fruit quality (Satapathy and Banik, 2002). The increased fruit yield due to frequent fertilizer application (Sharma et al., 2000). Where as in the citrus, the recommended rate of N2 for younger plants are commonly depends upon N2 analysis or N2 removal harvested fruit. In Texas (USA), N2 levels of sIX to eight year older plant of citrus ranges iron 0.5 to 0.6kg to the number of tree per year (Sauls, 2002). Leaves, branches and roots are directly or indirectly contribute yield of many vegetables. Nitrogen functions in accumulation of biomass as it is utilized from roots and leaves, since its major role in vegetative growth of Vegetables. It increases leaf size of spinach and color. Nitrogen forms are widely used in vegetable production (Wang el al., 2008). It is an essential constituent of protein, nucleic acids, chlorophyll and growth hormones. It is luminary as input of crop production that is a Single clement which contributes very much in agriculture. It enhances the metabolic processes that based on protein, leads to increases in vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop (Wang et al., 2008). In view of great importance of nitrogen in agriculture, current research reView article is written to explore the role of nitrogen in different angles and show the Scope ot nitrogen study for boosting of crop yield (Wang et al., 2008).

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a vegetable crop grown for its pungent bulbs and flavourful leaves. It belongs to the genus Allium of the family Amaryllidaceae. Generally, all plant parts of alliums can be consumed by humans except perhaps the seeds. Onions have significant contributions to the nutritional requirements of human beings and have also medicinal values and are primarily consumed for their unique flavour or for their ability to enhance the flavour of other foods.

Over 85.5 million tons of onion was produced worldwide, covering about 4.3 million ha of land, where about 0.57 million ha of the total cultivated land was in Africa. The productivity of onion in Africa is around 14.5 t ha−1, which is very low compared to the world average yield of 19.9 t ha−1. The average bulb yield in the EU is of about 35.3 t ha−1 and it is much higher than the world average, indicating the potential yield of onion. Most residents of sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia are dependent on rain fed agriculture. Rain fed agriculture in Sub Saharan Africa might remain vital for their food security for some time. About 85% of the population is agrarian and over 90% live on rain fed agriculture

In Ethiopia about 2.37 million tons of bulbs were produced from 22,035.8 ha of land with an average yield of 10.75 t ha−1. The Tigray Regional State share was about 7,562 tons from 528.4 ha of land and the average yield was 14.3 t ha−1. The potential of Ethiopia for bulb production, for local consumption and export is immense. The yield of onion in Ethiopia is however is low compared to other countries like the Republic of Korea (66.15 t ha−1), USA (56.13 t ha−1), the Netherlands (51.64 t ha−1), Japan (46.64 t ha−1) and Egypt (36.16 t ha−1).

Appropriate crop management gives significant contributions to increasing crop yields. Many reports indicate that, in Ethiopia the low productivity of vegetables including onions is attributed to depleted soil fertility and poor agronomic practices such as unbalanced fertilizer application. Poor technical knowledge and skill of farmers and development agents in vegetable production are the main problems for the low productivity. The optimum level of agronomic practices like plant population density and fertilizer rate might vary with environment and crop variety. Thus, it is very difficult to give general recommendations applicable to the different agro ecological zones. But to optimize onion productivity a full package of information is required for specific growing system. Optimum plant population density has a dual advantage. It avoids strong competition between plants for growth factors such as water, nutrients, and light while enabling efficient use of available of land resources

Higher yield and better control of over or under-sized bulbs could be obtained if plants are grown at optimum density. The control of plant spacing is therefore a valuable way of controlling bulb size, shape, and yield. There is however lack of improved techniques for onion production in northern Ethiopia and the issue was serious particularly in the study area. This research, has therefore, the objective to determine the impact of nitrogen fertilizer and spacing on growth and yield of onion.


1.1 Statement of the Problems:

Nigeria has a relatively high population growth rate that was estimated at 2.9%in 1997 (MEPND, 1997) and remains at 2.2 % by 2003 (MEPND, 2003). The demand for food is likely to continue increasing steadily in the near future. In order to meet this ever-increasing demand for food, crop production needs to be enhanced. Increasing the area where crops are grown Would seem a logical approach to attain growth in crop production. However, of Nigeria s 2005.6 million hectares of land, only 80.6 million hectares (19%) are medium to high potential agricultural land (MEPND, 1997). Furthermore due to crop failure, food shortage that often leads to low plant protein intake results into human malnutrition. 1here is need to put efforts towards production of crops that are high in protein nutrient, and vegetables (MEPND, 1997).


1.2 Justification of the Study

Considerably, knowledge accumulated by farmers on the impact of N2 remains unknown to the farmers. Review of the work done on nitrogen shows that nitrogen application is a tool to optimize the plant growth and yields. Among the three macronutrients required by the crops Tor optimal growth, nitrogen most frequently limits the growth and yields of crops. As the population of people rapidly increases there is the need to increase the rate of plant production with the aid of N2 to provide enough food to salvage the people.


1.3 Scope of the Study

The research would cover the study of the impact of nitrogen (N2) on the vegetative growth of Allium cepa (onion).It would identify the morphological changes observed.


1.4 Aims of the Study

i. To determination on the impact of nitrogen application on the growth of onion (allium cepa) in Aliero metropolis

ii To determine the impact of nitrogen treatment and that of the control.



The specific objectives of the research are:

i. To determine the impact of nitrogen application on the growth of onion (Allium cepa) in Aliero metropolis

ii. To determine the biomass of Allium cepa plant.

iii. To determine the biomass of each plot.


















CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Attri et al. (2015) Significant variation among the 47 genotype of onion was observed for all the traits plant height, leaf length, leaves per plant, polar and equatorial diameter of bulbs, average bulb weight, total soluble solids and total yield quintal/hectare. Onion is most important crop cultivated throughout the world and utilized as spice and condiment. (China et al. 2015). Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the major vegetable crops grown in different parts of India mainly by small and marginal farmers. Generally, the onion seeds are sown in nursery and transplanted with row to row spacing of 15cm and plants to plants spacing of 7.5cm to get optimum yield. (Fitiwy  et.al., 2015). Two chemical insecticides including Dimethoate 40% E.C and Lambda- Cyhalothrin(Karate 5 E.C), and five botanical extracts obtained from neem (Azadiracta indica), Mexican marigold (Tagetus minuta), and Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) and Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) were use to tested for their controlling effect on onion thrips. Gill et tal. (2015) Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a well known onion pest worldwide. Onion thrips causes both direct and indirect damage to onion by feeding and ovipositing on leaves that may cause green onions (scallions) to be unmarketable and dry bulb onion size to be reduced Gopal Jai (2015) Onion (Allium cepa L.) originated in central Asia, which is its primary center of diversity. Though initially adapted to long days of temperature regions, it’s highly cross-pollination nature has paved the way for short day adapted selections as in India. Onion research in India started in 1960 at Pimpalgaon, Baswant, Nasik, but now a number of organizations including some agricultural universities are working on onion. Mithari et. al. (2015) Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is destructive, polyphagus pest of agriculturaland other economically important crop plant. Thrips tabaci scrape its mouth parts on tender parts of the crop and feed on oozing sap, resulting white/brown specks flowers and fruits and affect the growth of plants and quality of fruit. It was found emerging economic important crops such as onion, Allium cepa, Tomato, Cotton, Garlic, Tobacco etc.

Mohanty et al., (2015). An experiment was conducted to study the response of organic and inorganic fertilizer in various proportions on growth and yield of onion, (Allium cepa L.). Applications of organic inputs in combination with chemical fertilizers were found better option than application of organic manure or chemical fertilizer alone. This will not only help to improve the economic return and revenue generation of the farmers but also lower the growing onion market prices in the country. Sanam et. al. (2015) In the experiment, NaCl stress was assessed on local cultivar of onion (Allium cepa L.) under in-vitro conditions. The 4-weeks cultures with three levels of NaCl stress were maintained in MS plant nutrition medium. NaCl stresses

cause a number of growth retarding effects on different morpho- biochemical parameters. Bendre et al. (2014) Onion is one of the important commercial vegetable crops grown in India. Annual production of onion is estimated to be about 74.50 Lakh tones. This quantity is enough to meet the present domestic requirement as well as export of onions. India is traditional exporter of onion in the world. (Engla et. al., 2014) Twenty- two (22) genotypes of onion (Allium cepa Lin.) was screened against Thrips tabaci Lind. in the experimental field. The incidence of Thrips tabaci was observed from 45th standard metrological week (SMW) to 3rd SMW, that is, from transplanting till harvesting, in all the 22 genotypes. The mean T. tabaci population varied from 0.45-6.64 per plant during this period among the genotypes. Husain et. al. (2014) For the control of thrips, Thrips tabaci, three insecticides product Monvento 240 SC+ Biopower 276.6 SL, Acephate 75 SP and Confidor 200 SL were applied against the onion thrips. Immanuelraj et. al. (2014) The study mainly focused on Maharashtra’s onion growth and instability. Erratic weather, volatile market price and lack of adequate storage and market infrastructure caused instability in production through preventing the farmers in taking the optimal decision on allocation of area and raising farm productivity. Jayanthi and Vaideke, (2014) Marketing of agricultural goods is more complicated when compared to marketing of non agricultural goods. Farmers are facing many problems in both cultivation and marketing of onion.  Agricultural production generally depends on fertility of land, climate condition, and rain fall. Onion is one of the important agricultural commodity and spice crop. Kapaa kondal (2014) India occupied second position in term of production of onion in the world. During 2010-11, India’s share was 19.90 percent in total onion production in the world. During the 2009-10, Andhra Pradesh occupied 3rd place in terms of area, production and 1st place in terms of productivity in India. Katsaruware et al. ( 2014) Cultural methods can be implemented to reduce the problems that have been caused by indiscriminate use of insecticides. An experiment was carried to determine the ability of onion and garlic to reduce pest problems when intercropped with cabbages. Schwartz et. al. (2014) Onion (Allium cepa) is an economically important vegetable crop. Pests such as onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and a thrips transmitted virus disease, Iris Yellow Spot (IYS), caused by Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), have emerged in recent years as high priority, invasive, or potential threats to sustainable onion production throughout the United States and the world. Shankar et. al. (2014) A univariate structural time series model based on the traditional decomposition into trend, seasonal and irregular components is defined. Structural time series models are formulated in such a way that their components are stochastic, i.e. they are regarded as being driven by random disturbances. In present study the model was developed for onion production. Shiberu et. al. (2014) Thrips attack a number of vegetable crops particularly onion thrips causing considerable economic damage on onion crops. Usually young leaves are preferred, but buds and flowers also get infested. Under severe condition leaves shed and hence plant growth is affected and their control is vital to the production and profitability of onion crop. Tadele et al. (2014) Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (L.) is a key pest of onion and their control in vital to the production and profitability of this crop. If onion thrips are not collected, damage can routinely reduce bulb yield by 23-85%. Most onion fields need protection against thrips for two to three months and multiple applications are required to control infestation Verma et. al. (2014) An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of certain biopesticides against Thrips tabaci on garlic. Among the biopesticides, kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) decoction was more effective against thrips (3.73- 5.01 thrips per leaf) and the efficacy was similar to 0.03% dimethoate followed by lantana (Lantana camara), neem (Azadirachta indica), sickle senna (Cassia tora), sadaphuli (Catharanthus roseus), karanj (Pongamia pinnata), and arka (Calotropis gigantea) Akhtar et. al. (2013) A preliminary taxonomic survey has been conducted on Thrips of Kashmir regions. The species collected have been systematically arranged in their respective families and subfamilies. The study is based on the personal collection. Deshmukh et. al. (2013) While analyzing the knowledge and adoption of MPKV’s recommended pre- and post- harvest technology it was noticed that nearly cent per cent respondents had knowledge about soil type, selection of seed, varieties. About 96.22% onion growers had knowledge about harvesting of onion, while 50% had knowledge about neck dropping. Diaz-Montano et al. (2012) Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a global pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and the principal vector of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) that can cause 100% crop losses.

Muthomi et. al. (2012) Field experiment were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of intercropping carrot, spider plant and French bean with onion in the management of thrips, Thrips tabaci, in onion. Sayeda et al. (2011) Two biological formulations, neem (Nimbecidine) and Beauveria bassiana (Bio- Power) and jojoba oil were used for control onion thrips, Thrips tabaci in onion field. Also, vegetative characteristics and yield and germination of onion seeds were considerable. Joshi et. al. (2010) Studies on the effect of three fungal and one bacterial biopesticide against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci were conducted. Spinosad (0.009%), endosulfan (0.07%) and spinosad (0.0045%) + endosulfan (0.035%) were the most effective in reducing the population of thrips.

Verma et. al. (2010) The effect of pyrethrin toxicity for adult Thrips tabaci and Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) communities. Pyrethrin was recommended as biopesticides, because it has no change to other insects of pollination and highest productivity without any hazardous conditions. (Lawande et al., 2009) Onion and garlic research in India has produced 45 open – pollinated and two f1 hybrids in onion and approximately 25 verities in garlic. Red onion is used for domestic consumption and except while the white onion is used mostly for processing. Research on biotechnology for crop improvement in onion and garlic in India is in a nascent stage. (Nault et al., 2008 ) Effect of temperature and precipitation on temporal patterns of dispersing tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca,  and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, caught on yellow sticky traps were estimated in central and eastern North Carolina and Eastern Virginia from 1997 through 2001. (Wimmer 2008) Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, are both important polyphagous pests of vegetables and ornamentals in greenhouses. Difficulties in bilological control of these pests have promoted a search for new natural enemies. Most recently the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii ha been commercialized biological control agent of whiteflies and thrips.

Ananthakrishnan and Annadurai (2007) The occurrence of thrips vectors in considerable numbers enables their functioning in a dual role as vectors and as direct crops pests. The resistance of thrips to pesticides has enabled quick transmission of viruses, the transient nature of their populations being essentially responsible for infection. Mishra et al. (2007) Among the several factors attributed to low productivity of onion, damage of crop due to onion thrips is substantially important. Farmers were using parathion dust 02% to control the menace. However, neem- based biopesticides i.e. neem seed extract, neem leaf extract or neem oil constitute the recommendation for managing onion thrips. Srinivas and Lawande (2007) Thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) infestation at early stages results in poor establishment of onion crop due to high mortality of seedlings. Seedling root dip and foliar application treatments were evaluated with carbosulfan, imidacloprid, and chlorpyriphos during rabi season to manage the pest. Duchovskiene (2006) An abundance of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind.) was investigated in two leek varieties- ‘American flag’ and ‘Campus’- at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Leeks were damaged by onion thrips every year, but only in 2005 were 100% of plants infested. Nault et al. (2006) Thrips exhibit different reproductive modes including thelytoky (females produced from unfertilized eggs), arrhenotoky (males produced from unfertilized eggs and females produced from fertilized eggs) and deuterotoky (females and males produced from unfertilized eggs). Investigated patterns of reproductive modes in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, populations and potential effects of the bacterium wolbachia and temperature on these modes.

Bergant et al., (2005) Attempt to quantify the impact of future climate change on the developmental dynamics of onion thrips. Monthly averaged results of simulations of future climate form four different general circulation models (GCMs) were projected to local empirical down scaling. A simple degree day model, based on data reported in the literature, was used to relate the development of onion thrips to temperature. David R Jones (2005) All thrips (Order- Thysanoptera) that or known to vectors of plant viruses. Thrips transmit plant viruses in the Tospovirus, Ilarvirus, Carmovirus, Sobemovirus and Machlomovirus genera. Tospoviruses are the cause of a number of significant emerging diseases such as Capsicum chlorosis and scape blight of onion. (Rozman et. al., 2005) A field experiment was conducted for compare the effectiveness of four different intercrops in reducing onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) damage on onion plants. The four intercrops were lacy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.).


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