THE STUDY OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS SCIENCE SUBJECTS A STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN GUSAU


A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION TECHNICAL GUSAU GUSAU STATE 
DECEMBER, 2018

CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this research work was carried out by Bello AbubakarNoma with the Admission Number 1420218005 in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science Education (B.Sc. Ed.) Degree in Mathematics, Department of Science Education, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State.



______________________________ __________________________
        Supervisor Date
Dr.MairoDanjuma (Mrs.)   





______________________________ __________________________
Mal. Ibrahim AlhassanLibata Date
   H.O.D Science Education

DEDICATION
I dedicate this project work to my late Mother, Hajiya Aisha AbubakarNoma, may her gentle soul rest in peace, Ameen.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, my gratitude goes to Allah Almighty, who has been so merciful and generous in my life. I am highly indebted to my passionate and lovely parents AlhajiAbubakarNoma who has vowed to leave no stone unturned in his quest to give me formal education.  May God bless him abundantly. As a matter of fact, I must acknowledge my debt of gratitude to my project supervisor, Dr. (Mrs.) MairoDanjuma, without her diligent guidance and advice this study would not have seen the light of the day.
I also wish to place on record the invaluable help and commitment rendered by my friends and well-wishers for the moral and financial support given to me throughout the course of my study. My thanks and appreciations goes to my wife AsiyaAbdullahiDiggi, my lovely brothers and sisters Sa’adiya, Habibu, Abdulrahman, Usman, Fatima, Zainab, Aliyu (Walid) for their contributions toward the successful completion of my academic career.
I must acknowledge the contribution given to me by my school best friends Ahmad IbnShu’aib and Umar AbdullahiSani, my greetings extended to them for to their moral assist, advice, understanding, love, caring and support throughout my academic pursuit in the university. Finally, I wish to appreciate and acknowledge all the authorities, whose work were utilized and cited in the course of carrying out this research. My earnest prayer is that God will reward those that contributed immensely towards the success of this project directly or indirectly (Ameen!).



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vi
Abstract viii
CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study                                                      1
Statement of the Problem                                      5
Objectives of the Study 6
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 6
Scope and Limitations of the Study              7
CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
      Introduction 8
     Theoretical Framework 8
    Gender Role in Education              10
2.4 Attitude towards Science Teaching 19
2.5 Teaching and Learning and Gender 20
CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      Introduction 22
Research Design 22
      Population of the Study 22
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure 23
Instrument for Data Collection 24
    Validity of the Instrument 24
   Reliability of the Instrument  24
3.6 Method of Data Collection 25
3.7     Method of Data Analysis              25
CHAPTER FOUR:  DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 27
4.2 Biographic Information of the Respondents 27
4.3 Data Analysis and Interpretation 29
4.4 Discussion of the Findings 38
4.5 Summary of Major Findings 39

 
CHAPTER FIVE:  FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND           
                                 RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction 40
Summary of the Study 40
Conclusions 41
5.4 Recommendations 41
5.5 Suggestion for further Study 42
References 43 Appendices 46










LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Population of the study 22
Table 2: Sample of the study 23
Table 3: Biographic Information of Teachers 27
Table 4: Biographic Information of Students 28
Table 5: Teachers Responses on their Attitudes towards Science Subjects 29
Table 6: Students Responses on their Attitudes towards Science Subjects 30
Table 7: Teachers Responses on the Effects Gender on students Attitude towards
 Science Subjects 32
Table 8: Students Responses on the Effects of Gender on Students Attitudes
towards Science Subjects in Gusau Metropolis 34
Table 9: Students Responses on the Effects of Gender on Students Attitudes
towards Science Subjects in Gusau Metropolis 35
Table 10: Teachers Responses on the causes of Gender Differences towards Science
Subjects in Gusau Metropolis 36




ABSTRACT
This project was carried out to study the gender differences in the attitude of students towards science subjects, in some selected secondary schools in Gusau. Chapter one is the background of the study. Descriptive research method was used to solicit information from both the students and the teachers, the targeted population of this study comprises of science teachers and senior secondary school students offering science subjects (biology, chemistry and physics). A simple stratified random sampling was employed to select ten (10) science teachers and one hundred (100) science students across five (5) secondary schools in Gusau. Data was collected using questionnaires and it was analyzed using frequency tables, percentages and means. The result shows that; gender has a significant effect on the attitude of students towards science subjects, because boys have more positive attitude towards science subjects than their girls’ counterparts. The researcher therefore recommends that, students in senior secondary schools should be exposed to scientific concepts by the science teachers, this will help to shape their attitude positively towards science subjects. Also, parents should make their children know that science subjects are made for both boys and girls so as to take away all forms of discrimination amongst them in the learning of science.














CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The issue of gender disparity has been of great concern particularly in science subjects. Some researchers have traced it to the origin of man (Kurumeh, 2004, Ezeliora, 2005). They are on the opinion that as a boy grows, boy’s toys like gun will be provided to him while baby’s toys will be provided to the girl. This goes a long way to show that right from that stage of life; the children feel that a scientist should be a man not a woman. Girls prepared to be future mothers and so they do think beyond getting married and becoming mothers (Ezeliora, 2005).
Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields. In humans, biological sex is determined by five factors present at birth: the presence or absence of a Y chromosome, the type of gonads, the sex hormones, the internal reproductive anatomy (such as the uterus in females), and the external genitalia. People with mixed sex factors are intersex. People whose gender identity (their internal sense of their own gender) differs from their biological sex are transgender, transsexual or gender queer. A distinction is sometimes made between sex and gender. Sex differences generally refer to traits that are sexually dimorphic. Such differences are hypothesized to be products of the evolutionary process of sexual selection. By contrast, the term gender differences refers to average group differences between males and females that are presumably based on sexually monomorphic (the same between the sexes) biological adaptations and these group differences are presumed to be due primarily to differential socialization (Elisabeth and David, 1999).
Gender differences in education are a type of sex discrimination in the education system affecting both men and women during and after their educational experiences. The introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system of education is one of the most important steps taken by the Nigerian government to ensure the country’s scientific and technological development. Even the modified 9-3-4 system is modified landmark by the government to bring about scientific and technological development. The awareness of the vital role of science and technology in national development has prompted both the developed and developing countries of the world to include science and technology subjects in their school curricula to carry out various educational reforms in such areas. In Africa, for example, the African Primary Science Program (APSP) was developed. With more national consciousness and the continued pressure of modern scientific demands, the Federal Ministry of Education in Nigeria, for example, started adopting a more science oriented policies and programmes in education (N.P.E., 2004).
Through the help of such organs as the Nigeria Educational Research Council (NERC) and the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC), better-oriented curricula efforts began to emerge. A number of the new curriculum projects initiated were; the Core Curriculum in Primary Science, the Nigeria Secondary School Science Project, the Primary Education Improvement Project, the Nigeria Integrated Science Project, and the Federal Ministry of Education Core Curriculum Project for both Primary and Secondary School Science. In Nigeria, the National Policy on Education stipulates that secondary school education should equip students to live effectively in modern age of science and technology (Federal Ministry of Education - FME 2004). The proper teaching and handling of science and technology subjects in schools will result in the training of the minds of students in the understanding of the world around them in the acquisition of appropriate skills, capacities, competencies necessary for them to live and contribute to the development of their society.
In pursuance of this, governments of many nations have planned that science and technical subjects should be taught in such a way as to ensure that every secondary school student has access to science and technology irrespective of sex and creed. In Nigeria for example, as a follow up of the Adebo commission, the 6-3-3-4 system of education was put in place. The three year junior secondary school education took care of pre-vocational subjects while the three year senior secondary catered for sciences and vocational subjects (Oriaifo, 2002).The concept of science education has been defined variously by different authors. (Shapin, 1996) defines science as the study of the physical and natural world and phenomena, especially by using systematic observation and experiment. In view ofAigbomian and Imhanlahimi (2007), an operational definition of science is that advanced by the National Science Teachers Association 1963, which states that, “Science is an accumulated and systemised learning in general usage restricted to the natural phenomenon. What science does is to expose one to the knowledge of the natural phenomenon and to the use of practical efforts to transform it to reality. A nation’s school is particularly suited for the education of the people through science because it is the only organized societal institution that holds the largest number of youth atanytime.
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training and research. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education from all perspective is viewed or aimed at preparing one for life and since it is supposed to prepare one for a better living,one must be certain on what he/she can achieve through it and from what discipline he/she can attain it. Education must draw some of its principles from psychology. This entails having good grasp of all theories that influence the teaching-learning process. Also, the quality of education that a teacher provides to students is highly dependent upon what teachers do in the classroom. Thus, preparing the students of today to become successful individuals of tomorrow, science teachers need to ensure that their teaching is effective(Eagly and Chaiken, 2003).
Understanding of student attitude is very important in supporting their achievement and interest toward a particular discipline. Students attitude toward science have been extensively studied, but research was initially focused greatly on science in general (Dawson, 2000; Osborne, Simon and Collins, 2003), and less attention was addressed to particular disciplines like Biology, Physics and Chemistry (Salta and Tzougraki, 2004). This can partly camouflage students’ attitudes because science is not viewed as homogenous subjects Students’ attitudes toward science significantly alter their achievement in science. Therefore, identification and influence of attitudes came to be an essential part of educational research. This study has been initiated by the idea that; research in students’ attitudes toward science often involves science in general. Attitudes associated with science appear to affect students’ participation in science as a subject and impact performance in science (Linn, 1992). It is generally believed that students’ attitude towards a subject determines their success in that subject. In other words, favourable attitude result to good achievement in a subject. A student’s constant failure in a school subject can make him/her to believe that he/she can never do well on the subject thus accepting defeat. On the other hand, his/her successful experience can make him/her to develop a positive attitude towards learning the subject.
This suggests that student’s attitude towards science subjects could be enhanced through effective teaching strategies. It has in fact been confirmed that effective teaching strategies can create positive attitude on the students towards school subjects (Olowojaiye, 2000). Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive and behavioural components. Attitudes serve as functions including social expression, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them(Newbill, 2005). To change attitudes, new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one. Instructional design can create instructional environments to affect attitude change. In the greater realm of social psychology, attitudes are typical classified with affective domain, and are part of the larger concept to motivation (Greenwald, 1989). Attitudes are connected to social cognitive learning theory as one of the personal factors that affect learning (Newbill, 2005 and Bandura, 2009).
Attitude was defined by Eagly and Chaiken (2003), as, “Psychological tendencythat is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour”.
Attitudes toward learning chemistry is very important concept that can be described as the students’ view of knowledge,assessment, laboratory activities and the roles of instructors and students (Berg, 2005). A learner’s attitude relates to all the facets of education. For example, the attitude of a learner towards science will determine the measure of the learner’s attractiveness or repulsiveness to science. It follows therefore, that in order to have better students’ performance in science subjects there is need to determine students’ attitude to science subjects. The investigators consider it necessary to bring into focus the present study with the following.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is widely known in Nigeria that large numbers of students tend to choose non science courses while seeking admission to higher institutions. The number of students offering non science subjects is more than that of science students. There by making science subject a case study. Likewise, students’ poor performance in science subjects have been attributed to poor teaching methods, unqualified and inexperienced teachers, poor student’s attitude toward science subjects, poor learning environment and gender effects. Attitudes toward science are in general, highly favoured, by men and not women, which raises the question why women are denied the right to study science since education is  suppose to be a free choice.
1.3 Objectives of the Study.
The objectives of this study are to:
1. Determinesecondary school student attitudes towards science subjects in Gusau Metropolis.
2. Investigate the effect of gender on student’s attitude toward science subjects in Gusau Metropolis.
3. Examine the causes of gender differences towards science subjects in Gusau Metropolis..
1.4 Research Questions
The following research question were raised to guide the study:
1. What are the attitudes of secondary school students toward science subjects inGusaumetropolis.?
2. What is the effect of gender on student’s attitude toward science subjects in Gusaumetropolis.?
3. What are the causes of gender differences towards science subjects in Gusaumetropolis.?



1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study will educate the students of secondary schools and the general public on the gender differences in studying science subjects in secondary schools and will be a contribution to the body of literature in the academic realm. This study will be of significance to parents in choice of subjects for their female children it will also be of significance to the government enlightening them to the importance studying science subjects knowing that if you educate a women, you educate the nation. 
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the study
This study which is gender differences in the attitudes of students towards science subjectswill cover the senior secondary school students in Gusau. But due to time and financial constraint, the study will be limited to some selected secondary schools obtaining science subjects in Gusau metropolis,Gusau State of Nigeria. Questionnaires will be used only because interview is time consuming as well as cost of transportation.


















CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
In this chapter, review of related literature which includes reports, opinions to this study are organised under the following sub-headings:
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.3 Gender Role in Education
2.4 Attitude towards Science Teaching
2.5 Teaching and Learning and Gender
2.2 Theoretical Framework
The theory used for this research is the theory of reasoned action postulated by (Azjen and Fishbeinin, 1975). The components of theory of reasoned action are three general constructs: Behavioural Intention (BI), Attitude (A), and Subjective Norms (SN). Theory of reasoned action suggest that a person’s behavioural intention depends on the person’s attitude about the behaviour and subjective norms (BI=A+SN). If a person intends to do a behaviour then it is likely that the person will do it. Furthermore, a person’s intentions are themselves guided by two things: the person’s attitude towards the behaviour and the subjective norms. Behavioural intention measures a person’s relative strength of intention to perform behaviour. Attitude consists of beliefs about the consequences of performing the behaviour multiplied by his or her evaluation of these consequences. Subjective Norm is seen as a combination of perceived expectations from relevant individuals or groups along with intentions to comply with these expectations.
In other words, “the person’s perception that most people who are important to him or her think he should or should not perform the behaviour in question” (Azjen and Fishbein, 1975). The theory of reasoned action of Azjen and Fishbein, (1975) agrees with the current study on the attitudes of secondary school students toward science subjects because it has to do with attitude change. Attitude towards science denote interest or feeling towards studying science. It is the students’ disposition towards ‘likes’ or ‘dislikes’ science while attitude in science means scientific approach assumed by an individual for solving problems, assessing ideas and making decisions (Keeves,1995). He further asserted that attitude toward science are known to decrease as students progress through their school years. He further submitted that attributes such as enthusiasm, respect for students and personality traits have been shown to influence students’ attitude toward science as well as in other subjects.
From the foregoing, it has been discovered that student’ attitudes toward science significantly alter their achievement in science. Therefore, identification of influence of attitudes becomes an essential part of educational research. This study has been initiated by the idea that; research in students’ attitude toward science often involves science in general, but particular discipline like Biology, Chemistry or Physics have been overlooked. The study of related literature revealed that gender and age has great influence on the attitude of students toward science subjects. Studies in Nigeria, including that of Alao (1998) examined six attitudinal dimensions and their effects on students’ achievement. The dimensions were:
 i. Social implications of science
ii. Attitude towards scientific inquiry 
iii. Normality of scientist
iv. Enjoyment of science and science lessons
v. Leisure interest in science and
vi. Career interests in science.
The result of the study revealed that students have positive attitudes towards sciences, Mathematics inclusive. Odunsi (1992), in assessing the attitude of some science students toward modern orientation in science found that students attitude to science is negative while gender and class level of the students did not significantly influence students’ attitude toward science. Obioha (2012), when describing Nigeria situation, opined that school in Nigeria have come a long way from no science in schools to almost compulsory science programmes at all levels and yet younger generation do not want to study science. The reason for this is not farfetched. The social values in the country nowadays have diverted students’ attention and interest from learning science to other goodies of life. Olatoye (2002), found that students attitude towards science has significant direct effect on students achievement in the subject.      Adesokan (2000), and Onwu (2001), asserted that in spite of the recognition given to chemistry among the science subjects, it is evident that students still show negative attitude towards science subjects thereby leading to poor performance and low enrolments.
2.3 Gender Role in Education
The education system, as some sociologists have said, is the beginning of a process to differentiate between the potentially successful and unsuccessful members of society. Also, “since schools are created by governments, whose top decision-making officials are elected, they are political creations,” (Handel, Cahill, & Elkin, 2007). Another researcher stated it very well by saying, “Public schools play an important part in the allocation of prestige, money, status, and power,” (Elisabeth & Tyack, 1999). In order for the institution of education to most efficiently divide up commodities like prestige, money, status and power, there must be discriminatory practices present to divide people by. This is where discrimination based on race, gender, sexual orientation, and socio-economic status come in. Parents contribute to the socialization of gender roles in their children. From the moment a child is born, they are given a name that carries with it a gender role which the child is expected to fulfil.
The child’s nursery, clothes, book, toys, television shows, etc. all transmit ideas about what role the child must fill. Schools as a whole also contribute to gender role socialization and discrimination. Textbooks and children’s literature are places that exhibit gender roles that students pick up on. In the 1991 study discussed by Sadker, Sadker, and Klein, women and girls were underrepresented in basal readers that were in widespread use in the 1970’s. When they were included, they were in stereotypical roles. The Women on Words and Images group found that there was 5:2 ratios of boy-centered stories to girl-centered stories. Also, there were 147 different occupations depicted for males and only 25 for females. One demeaning portrayal of women that was found in a reader said, “Women’s advice is never worth two pennies. Yours isn’t worth even a penny,” (Sadker, Sadker, & Klein, 1991). Another said, “Look at her, Mother, just look at her. She is just like a girl, she gives up,” (Sadker, Sadker, & Klein, 1991).
Another still said, “We are willing to share our great thoughts with mankind. However, you happen to be a girl,” (Sadker, Sadker, & Klein, 1991). Feminists on Children’s Literature examined 49 Newberry Medal winners, which are supposed to be some of the best books published, and they found that “books about boys outnumbers books about girls by 3 to 1. They also found that the books contained sex stereotypes as well as derogatory comments about females,” (Sadker, Sadker, & Klein, 1991). When a child enters school, the teacher and peers then further push the child to conform to their socially constructed gender roles. Teachers’ attitudes about their students can directly affect the way they teach certain students. These attitudes seem to be influenced by the degree to which children conform to teachers’ perceptions of acceptable student attributes. This can be affected by whether or not the teacher perceives the child as acting in their appropriate sex roles.
A study by Peggy Orenstein in 1994 entitled, Schoolgirls: Young Women, Self Esteem, and the Confidence Gap, is an excellent example of many of the gender issues that pervade our classrooms today. She discusses many issues like sexual harassment and feelings of inferiority among girls. Orenstein, like so many others, discusses the idea of the “hidden curriculum.” She talks about a classroom experience in which the boys were able to answer the questions and receive the praise just because they blurted out. She said that while another student, a female, might know the answer, she probably will not speak up because she is socialized to act docile. If girls do shout out answers in the class, they are normally the easiest, lowest-risk questions. The teacher does nothing to condone the boys aggressiveness, but she doesn’t have to: they insist on- and receive her attention even when she consciously tries to shift it elsewhere in order to make the class more equitable,” (Orenstein, 1994).
When one girl speaks up in the class and gets the answer wrong, she concludes, “Oh yeah, that’s about the only time I ever talked in there. I’ll never do that again,”(Orenstein, 1994). It is shown that “students who talk in class have more opportunity to enhance self-esteem through exposure to praise; they have the luxury of learning from mistakes and they develop the perspective to see failure as an educational tool,” (Orenstein, 1994). According to perceived sex roles, a teacher can either motivate or hinder a students’ learning. This is often a subconscious task, but it does derive from the society, since teachers are part of society, too. In our society, males are seen as the more powerful and intelligent group, and therefore teachers transmit this idea in their classrooms. This is especially evident in the subjects of math and science in elementary school, because those are the subjects which involve tasks perceived by society as more difficult. Excellence in these subjects also leads the student on to jobs in the more lucrative careers in our society, so it makes since that males are better taught in these subjects.
This goes along with the idea of gender essentialism, which is “the idea that there are unique male and female traits that make men and women naturally suited to different occupational roles,” (Marger, 2008). One study found that 66 percent of all sexist incidents occurred in chemistry classes. This included “blatant discussion domination by boys, teachers favouring boys, and the humiliation of girls,” (Lee, 1994). There was also a considerable amount more boys than girls in chemistry classes. In math classes, a study found that both boys and girls “showed the most enthusiasm for mathematics in the elementary years,” (Wimer, Ridenour, &Place, 2001), but by early adolescence, the percentages of boys enthusiastic about math dropped from 84 percent to 72 percent, and for girls from 81 percent to 61 percent. Then by high school, only 25 percent of boys and 15 percent of girls considered themselves good at math. Girls reasoned that they were “just not smart enough which is an idea that is engrained in our society.
The book by Peggy Orenstein also tackled the issue of the fact that girls are not encouraged in math and science. Girls are not likely to retain affection for math and science like boys. Their confidence continues to diminish as they get older, and so does their understanding of the subjects. Finally, that leaves boys outperforming girls in either subject, which is proven to have an effect on their earning potential later in life (Orenstein, 1994). Another study found that teachers ask boys more questions than they ask girls, and the questions typically involve academic content, even if the teachers don’t know they are doing it. The authors posit that the reason mathematics is more challenging to girls is because of cultural and media messages that promote female appearance more than mathematics ability. Also, “the disparity in mathematics performance between boys and girls shows increases as children grow older and social influences are manifested,” (Wimer, Ridenour, & Place, 2001).
Researchers state that it is proven that teachers interact with male students much more frequently. In science and math classrooms, this interaction level is even higher. It has also been proven that praise from a teacher is crucial to a students’ success in school. So, if teachers are favouring boys, it is obvious that they have a much better opportunity to perform above others. Girls are expected to be more docile in the classroom, almost to the point they are invisible. “They receive fewer academic contacts, less praise, fewer complex and abstract questions, and less instruction on how to do things for themselves,” (Oluwojaiye, 2000).
Single-Sex vs Co-education, There are a debate between advocates of single sex education (Jimenez & Lockheed, 1989; Lee &Bryk, 1986, 1989; Lee & Marks, 1990; Mael, 1998), and advocates of coeducation (Dale, 1974; Marsh, Owens, Myers, & Smith, 1989; Schneider & Coutts, 1982). Many researchers have found that girls in single-sex schools performed better than their coeducational school counterparts (Baker, 2002; Jimenez & Lockheed, 1989; Lee & Marks, 1990; Mael, 1998). They stated that this type of schooling was beneficial for building successful female career aspirations and self-esteem, and also made girls feel empowered and intelligent. They claimed that co- classrooms fostered gender inequities, and were only beneficial for males (Baker, 2002; Mael, 1998). Lee and Marks (1990) suggested that girls who attended coeducational schools needed to develop higher aspirations and goals, and they suggested that schools form a committee to monitor gender equity.
Holland and Eisenhart (1992), in their large comprehensive study of two universities—one primarily white in an affluent and prestigious suburban community(the other primarily African American located in a poor inner city area, concluded that: Same-sex groups, like Willis’s lads or McRobbies’ girls, seem but a limited part of the picture. From the subsequent research, what seems more likely is that many girls (and boys) participate in larger, more diverse peer cultures or student cultures, which are coed. Our study, too, reveals coed student cultures and indicates that these mixed peer groups have great consequences for the women involved. (Holland &Eisenhart, 1990). Some researchers pointed out that certain student experiences can also affect gender differences in science. Even though male and female students were in the same classrooms, the gaps in their educational experiences were very wide (Baker, 1987). By the age of nine, boys, in greater numbers than girls, claimed to engage more frequently in "tinkering" activities out of school (Johnson, 1987).
 Researchers concluded that because of these early established differences in interests and activities, girls appeared to develop a very restricted view of science and its capabilities, and did not adequately or effectively envision themselves as future scientists (Kahle&Lakes, 1983). Moreover, some studies have identified teacher interactions and classroom instructions as important factors. Baker, Leary and Trammel (1992), found that 2nd and 5th grade students liked science, but not as a subject taught in school. Piburn and Baker (1993), proposed that to promote girls’ motivation in science, it must be taught differently. For instance, it seems certain that educators need to build environments that foster group study as well as the use of more hands-on activities and open-ended laboratories.
Gender differences in Korean high school students’ science achievements. Bang & Baker -30- Science Achievements and Attitudes Towards Science Men’s Attitude towards Science as more Positive than those of Women Ahn, Kim, and Soe (1985), adopting the scheme of categories of science education created by Klopfer, found that 91% of participants said they liked lab experiments. Male students, however, had a more positive attitude in certain subcategories—attitudes towards science and scientists, enjoyment in learning science, participation in science-related activities, and interest in science research—than that of females. Kim, Chung, Jeong, Yang and Kim (1999), performed a longitudinal study of three trends in Korean students’ science related abilities: 1) Cognition of science, 2) Interest in science, and 3) Scientific attitudes. They stated that male students showed higher scores for all these characteristics. Ye, Skoog, and Zhu (2000), provided Chinese secondary schools data to supplement the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). They found that in most science related subjects, male students’ attitudes towards science were more positive than female students’ attitudes. Cannon and Simpson (1985) found that males had more positive attitudes towards science and achieved higher recognition in science than females, even though female students were more motivated than males to achieve success in science. They also affirmed that this might be due to gender role stereotyping within our society.
Hassan (1985), in a study of secondary school students in Jordan, found that male students who had better attitudes seemed to have positive perceptions of the science books, but negative perceptions of the science teachers. Female students, however, displayed the opposite pattern. Women’ Attitudes towards Science as more Positive than those of Men Baker (1985), using both the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Scientific Attitude Inventory (SAI), found that females had better science grades, indicating a more positive attitude towards science. She also stated that females did not possess the same level of decision-making skills, based on logical analysis that their male counterparts possessed. Instead they preferred to portray themselves as making decisions based on personal values. Ye et al. (2000) found that female students had better attitudes and achievements in subjects like biology. This was supported by a study conducted by Scantlebury, Baker, Ayumi, and Atsushi (2002), on Japanese students.
       They indicated that in Japan, high school biology was not a course taken by males who planned to study science at the university, but was taken by females who planned to study science, or those who planned on pursuing a non-science major at the university Studies that Found No Difference, and Suggested Things to Consider Harty and Beall (1984), in a study of gifted and normal fifth graders, found that there were no attitudinal gender differences between boys and girls. Rather, they found that there was a category where boys were more active than girls, which was “spending more time doing science experiments” (Harty&Beall, 1984, p483). Barrington and Hendricks (1988) studied 143 intellectually gifted and average third, seventh, and eleventh grade students. Although they expected gender differences in attitudes towards science and scientific knowledge, gender, as a separate variable, did not have a pronounced effect. Some studies (Cannon & Simpson, 1985; Piburn& Baker, 1993; Scantlebury et al., 2002; Simpson & Oliver, 1985) have indicated that American, Chinese, and Japanese students seem Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 3(2); 27-42, 1 August, 2013 -31- to have a degree of common ground, in that they both display a sharp decline in their attitudes toward science as their school years progress.
Attitudes towards science at the beginning of the school years were more positive than towards the end (Cannon & Simpson, 1985). That is, science courses commonly taught to adolescent students in most school systems do not produce individuals with positive attitudes towards science, and do not produce students who are eager to continue taking science courses in high school and college (Simpson & Oliver, 1985). Furthermore, Simpson and Oliver (1985) found that for all students, attitudes towards science declined sharply from the beginning to the middle of the year within each grade. Many researchers also pointed out differences in male/female preferred learning and teaching styles. Han (1986) investigated the development of scientific reasoning or logical thinking patterns of Korean secondary school students. He pointed out that the level of development of female students tended to be higher than that of males. He concluded, however, that during the period of development of logic there is a difference between males and females, according to the type of logic involved.     
Kim, Kim, and Kim (1990), indicated that although female students did not show significant differences between highly structured and less structured lesson, for the male students, a highly structured communication setting more successfully facilitated scientific achievement. In the two-year study of Handley and Morse (1984), students’ self-concepts/gender role perceptions were related to both their achievements and attitudes towards science. Harty, Samuel, and Beall (1986), using data from 228 sixth-grade students, found that attitudes towards science, interest in science, and science curiosity were highly related. They emphasized that in order to create classroom environments that encouraged student participation and focus on the development of more positive attitudes towards science, a greater interest in science and a higher level of science curiosity among students was crucial. Most importantly, Scantlebury et al. (2002) indicated that apart from suffering from the incorrigible belief in the “entrance exam hell” phenomena, and “equality in ability” in Japan (Ogawa, 2001, p590), socio cultural background was also one of the predictive factors for academic achievement and attitude in Japanese science education.





2.4 Attitude towards Science Teaching
The Attitude towards science teaching is a very significant outcome of the process of science education. Attitude towards science teaching of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and live as efficient citizen in a scientific society. , the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal philosophy based on truth, understanding and logic rather than one based on superstition institution or wishful thinking”. Woolnough (1994), have incorporated a range of components in their measures of attitudes to science including: the perception of the science teacher; anxiety toward science; the value of science; self-esteem at science; motivation towards science; enjoyment of science; attitudes of peers and friends towards science; attitudes of parents towards science; the nature of the classroom environment; achievement in science; and fear of failure on course.
Attitudes toward science are shaped by different factors such as ability, motivation, quality of instruction, the content of courses, teachers’ personalities, home and school environments, the place students live, race and gender. Gender seems to be one of the important predictors of students’ achievement in science learning and attitude toward science (Shamai, 1996 and Walberg, 1998). Gender-related research indicates that boys favor science courses as well as science related jobs such as engineering more than girls (Cavas, Cakiroghu, Cavas and Ertepinar, 2011) and (Faye, 1997).
 An international study conducted by the International Assessment of Educational Progress including 20 countries and students from nine to thirteen-year old students found that there was a considerable gap between Boys and Girls students for their attitudes toward science and science teaching in the participating countries except for Taiwan and Jordan. In those countries, boys preferred mostly mathematics and physics courses while girls tended to take biology courses (Schibeci, 1990). The same findings have also been in other studies where Boys had more positive attitudes toward science than girls. According to the report of (Weinburgh, 2000) and (Simpson, 1994), boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls among 4000 students studying at grade 6 through 10. Besides, (Jones, Howe and Rua, 2000), presented similar results, to indicate that 6th grade Girls students felt science courses were more difficult to understand than Boys students did. This tendency affected choosing future careers by students which had resulted in 15% of the work force in science related areas being women (Chapman, 2007).
2.5 Teaching and Learning and Gender
Many studies looking at gender differences have focused on differences in performance related to the different science subjects. A number of studies have found that boysachievement in science is significantly better than that of girls (e.g. Fleming and Malone, 1983). Levin, Sabar and Libman (1991) found that the achievement of boys in all subject area of their study (earth science, biology, chemistry and physics) was significantly better than the achievement of the girls. Young and Fraser (1994) in a study of Australian secondary school students also concluded that boys' achievement in biology, physics and chemistry was significantly better than girls. In England and Wales, the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) data for thirteen year old pupils indicated that boys outperformed girls in the use of graphs tables and charts, using apparatus and measuring instruments, interpretation of data and application of physics and chemistry concepts; whereas there was no difference in the performance in the application of biology concepts, (Murphy and Qualter 1990). However, results from APU surveys of eleven year olds indicated few large differences between boys and girls (Harlen 1993) although the age eleven surveys included very few questions relating specifically to the application of physics, chemistry or biology concepts.
Although, as described above, there are many studies which identify differences in performance between boys and girls, others are less conclusive. Erickson and Erickson (1984)noted that, differences were not consistent across all grades and that a typical pattern of differences was that boys perform better in physical sciences, while their advantage becomes relatively small in biological sciences. Houtz (1995), for example, reported that there were no significant differences in performance between girls and boys in the seventh and eighth grades in midwest USA. This lack of difference could not be explained by the areas of science being studied as grade seven had studied life science, while grade eight had studied physical science. Other studies have also documented no significant differences between boys’ and girls' performance in science (Ajewole, 1991; Catsambis, 1995; Greenfield, 1996). In two of these studies (Ajewole and Greenfield), the authors also reported no significant differences between boys and girls in their attitudes towards science. Catsambis found males had a more positive attitudes than females, but that no differences in science achievement were noted. These latter studies are fairly recent, and the lack of difference between boys and girls may be related to different approaches being taken to teaching science which results in more positive attitudes towards the subject by pupils, particularly girls. One suggestion which has been put forward is that students attitudes towards science could have an effect on their subsequent performance in the subject.







CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
The focus of this chapter is to explain some of the ways and manners this research work was conducted. Specifically, it explains the research design, research population, sample and sampling techniques, research instruments and the methods of collecting and analyzing the data obtained.
3.2 Research Design
A descriptive survey was used to solicit information from students and teachers. The research work was purposely designed in such a way that it tallies with the main objectives of the study: to examine the problem of gender differences in the attitude of students towards science subjects and suggest possible solutions to them.Essentially,
3.3 Population of the Study
The survey covered five secondary schools in Gusau. The total population of teachers is 85 and the total population of students is 4120.
Table 1: Population of the Study
S/N
Name of schools
No. of Teachers
No. of students

1.
Federal college of edu staff school gusau
18
348

2.
Muslim student society academy gusau
16
240

3
Sheikh islamibntaimiyyagusau
14
263

4.
Sheik abubakar Mahmud gummi
21
2218

5.
College of Islamic science
15
1051


Total
85
4120

Source: Filed work, 2018

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
As stated earlier, the sample used in this research work consists of five (5) secondary schools within gusau, zamfaraState. A simple stratified random sampling technique was applied in selecting the respondents to the questionnaires. Nworgu (2006) stated, a sampling technique is a plan specifying how elements will be drawn from the populationHo
Table 2: Sample of the Study
S/N
Schools
No. Of teachers
 Number of students

i.
Federal college of edu staff school gusau
2
20

ii.
Muslim student society academy gusau
2
20

iii.
Sheikh islamibntaimiyyagusau
2
20

iv.
Sheik abubakar Mahmud gummi
2
20

v.
College of Islamic science
2
20


   Total                         
10
100

  Source: Field work, 2018
.




3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
A questionnaire was the instrument used for collecting data for the research comprises two sections, section A biological information and section B were the questions. One set was for the students and the other was for the science teachers of the schools concerned. The one set for the students contained eighteen items and that of teachers contain fifteen items. The questionnaires comprised close-ended items where respondents were provided with a four-point Likert-type scale made up of the following responses: Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD) to choose from.
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument
The instrument (questionnaire) was designed to be vetted by the supervisor to confirm its content validity. In addition, the production of final draft of the questionnaire was done after supervisor vetted its content. The validation certified the appropriateness and clarity of the instrument in addressing the purpose of the study.
Validityis a process of assessing the degree to which the information collected accurately answers the research questions. It describes the procedures adopted in ensuring that the instrument used has measured what it was designed to measure (Nworgu, 2006). The researcher resort to the use of questionnaires to obtain information from different denomination of respondents to enable the researcher obtainvalid responses from the respondents.
3.5.2 Reliability of the Instrument
The instrument was used with a view to have accurate and reliable information from different opinion of the respondents using test-re-test method.Reliability refers to the degree to which a measurement procedure can reproduce. Reliability concerns the consistency with which an instrument measures whatever it measures (Nworgu, 2006).
3.6 Method of Data Collection
The researcher went to the school on Monday around 8am and met the principal. The principal grant him permission and he was assigned with three staff allocated to him by the principals for each class SSI to SSIII, few students were selected and arranged in one class and the questionnaire was distributed to the respondents. The teachers were first seen before the students and it took thirty minutes (30) for bout the teachers and students to fill the questionnaire.In this way all the questionnaires distributed were collected and this reduced the incidence of being lost or misplaced.
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
The data collected by the researcher from the respondent’s responses to each item in the questionnaire were analyzed according to the specific research questions. This involved the use of frequency tables, percentages and means.
In order to determine extent of the agreement and disagreement in each of the statement in the questioner’s item, nominal values were assigned to different scaling items as follows:
Strongly agree (SA) = 4
Agree (A)   = 3
Disagree (D)   = 2
Strongly disagree (SD) = 1
TOTAL = 10
A cut – off point was determined by finding the mean of the nominal values assigned to the options as follows:
x (mean) =  (Fx
(f
    Where, x = mean
= sum of
F = number of respondents in each of the four option.
X = Assigned scored to the scaling items
Ef = Total number of respondents (sample size)
The actual cut-off point was obtained by the following order: 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 10
Therefore x = 10/4 = 2.5
The cut – off point becomes 2.5.
Decision rule = The mean score of any statement below 2.5 is regarded as disagreed while the mean score which is equal to or greater 2.5 is regard as agreed.







CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction
This chapter is concerned with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data collected. The x (mean) was obtained by multiplying the frequency (f) by the assigned scores (X) and divided by the total number of samples selected from the population.
4.2 Biographic Information of the Respondents
The biographic information of the respondents is as shown in tables 3 and 4 below:
Table 3: Biographic Information of Teachers

Frequency
Percentage %

Gender:
Male
Female
7
3
70
30

Age Bracket:
20-25yrs
25-30yrs
30 and above
3
4
3
30
40
30

Marital Status:
Single
Married
4
6
40
60

Academic Qualification
NCE
HND
Degree
Masters
5
1
4
0
50
10
40
0

Years of Experience
1-5
5-10
10-15
15-20
20 and above
2
5
2
1
0
20
50
20
10
0



The table above shows that 70% of the teachers were male, 30% were female, 30% were aged between 20-25 years, 40% 25-30 years and 30% were 30 years and above. 40% were singled while 60% were married. 50% are NCE holders, 10% are HND holders and 40% are Degree holders. 20% have 1-5 years, 50% 5-10 years, 20% 10-15 years and 10% 15-20 years of working experience.
Table 4: Biographic Information of Students

Frequency
Percentage %

Gender:
Male
Female
60
40
60
40

Class:
SS 1
SS 2
SS 3
30
35
35
30
35
35

Source: Field work, 2018
The table above shows that 60% of the students were male while the other 40% were female. 30% of the students were from SS 1, 35% were from SS 2 and 35% were from SS 3.






4.3 Data Analysis and Interpretation 
Research Question1: What are the attitudes of Secondary School Students towards Science Subjects in Gusau Metropolis?
Table 5: Teachers Responses on their Attitudes towards Science Subjects
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks

1.
Male students are more interested in science subjects than female students.
5
2
2
1
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
20
6
4
1





(f=10

(fx=31
3.1
Agreed

2.
Male students express more confidence in science class than female students.
3
5
2
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
15
4
0





(f=10

(fx=31
3.1
Agreed

3.
Few female students enroll in science classes.
3
6
1
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
18
2
0





(f=10

(fx=32
3.2
Agreed

4.
Female students show more anxiety about science subjects than female students.
2
6
2
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
8
18
4
0





(f=10

(fx=30
3.0
Agreed

Source: Field work, 2018
The table above indicates that the respondents agreed that male students show more positive attitude towards science subjects than the female students.
Table 6: Students Responseson their Attitudes towards Science Subjects
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks



Male
Female





1.
I am interested in science subjects.
19
26
4
1
8
12
21
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
108
114
50
10





(f=100

(fx=282
2.8
Agreed

2.
I quite do well at science subjects.
15
22
10
3
9
19
16
6
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
96
123
52
9





(f=100

(fx=280
2.8
Agreed

3.
I always attend science lesson.
23
19
5
3
15
14
7
14
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
152
99
24
17





(f=100

(fx=292
2.9
Agreed

4.
I always enjoy science lesson.
7
29
9
5
3
18
20
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
40
141
58
14





(f=100

(fx=253
2.5
Agreed

5.
I appreciate science subjects.
10
19
15
6
5
23
17
5
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
60
126
64
11





(f=100

(fx=261
2.6
Agreed

6.
I want to learn a lot more about science.
23
16
9
2
24
19
7
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
188
105
32
2





(f=100

(fx=327
3.3
Agreed

7.
I like reading books on science.
8
16
16
10
2
7
32
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
40
69
96
19





(f=100

(fx=224
2.2
Disagreed

8.
I would like a career which involves science.
22
13
11
4
10
19
17
4
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
128
96
56
8





(f=100

(fx=288
2.9
Agreed

Source: Field work, 2018
The table above indicates that the respondents agreed that male students show more positive attitude towards science subjects while the female students partially have interest in science subjects. Also it indicates that the students are not interested in reading scientific books.
Research Question 2: What is the effect of gender on students’ attitude toward science subjects in Gusau Metropolis?
Table 7:Teachers Responses on the Effects Gender on students Attitude towards
  Science Subjects
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks

1.
The students find it difficult to understand the words and expressions used in science subjects.
4
5
1
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
16
15
2
0





(f=10

(fx=33
3.3
Agreed

2.
The students find it difficult when they are asked to use what they have learned to solve new problems.
3
4
1
2
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
12
2
2





(f=10

(fx=28
2.8
Agreed

3.
The students often find difficult to follow scientific instructions.
3
5
1
1
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
15
2
1





(f=10

(fx=30
3.0
Agreed

4.
Science subjects are more appropriate for male students than female students.
1
4
3
2

4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
4
12
6
2





(f=10

(fx=24
2.4
Disagreed

5.
Male students are likely to succeed more in science subjects than female students.
2
4
3
1
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
8
12
6
1





(f=10

(fx=27
2.7
Agreed

The table above indicates that there is difficulty in teaching and learning of science subjects. Also, it shows that science subjects are not only meant for only male students but for both male and female.








Table 8: Students Responses on the Effects of Gender on Students Attitudes
towards Science Subjects in Gusau Metropolis
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks



Male
Female





1.
I always find it difficult to understand the words and expressions used in science subjects.
19
13
15
3
23
12
8
7
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
168
75
46
10





(f=100

(fx=299
3.0
Agreed

2.
I always find it difficult to solve scientific problems in class.
20
21
8
1
15
27
4
4
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
140
144
24
5





(f=100

(fx=313
3.1
Agreed

3.
I often find the teacher’s instructions difficult to follow.
14
18
13
5
17
16
8
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
124
102
20
14





(f=100

(fx=260
2.6
Agreed

Source: Field work, 2018
The table above indicates that the students find it difficult solve scientific problems and to respond to scientific instructions.


Research Question 3: What are the causes of gender differences towards science in Gusau Metropolis?
Table 9: Teachers Responses on the Effects of Gender on Students Attitudes
towards Science Subjects in Gusau Metropolis
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks

1.
I enjoy teaching science subject.
3
5
2
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
15
4
0





(f=10

(fx=31
3.1
Agreed

2.
Science subjects require more practical than theories.
6
4
0
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
24
12
0
0





(f=10

(fx=36
3.6
Agreed

3.
I always try to relate scientific concepts to our everyday life
3
6
1
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
18
2
0





(f=10

(fx=32
3.2
Agreed

4.
I always try to involve the students in my class discussion.
3
7
0
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
21
0
0





(f=10

(fx=33
3.3
Agreed

5.
I always try to get round the class during practical work.
3
6
1
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
18
2
0





(f=10

(fx=32
3.2
Agreed

6.
There should be gender equality in science classes and as well while teaching science subjects.
5
5
0
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
20
15
0
0





(f=10

(fx=35
3.5
Agreed

Source: Field work, 2018
The table above indicates that the teachers are trying their best to see that science subjects are taught effectively and efficiently.
Table 10: Students Responses on the Effects of Gender on Students Attitudes
towards Science Subjects in Gusau Metropolis
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks

1.
There are qualified science subject teachers in our school.
20
21
46
13
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
80
63
92
13





(f=100

(fx=248
2.5
Agreed/ Disagreed

2.
Our science subject teachers always get us involved during class discussion.
17
25
32
26
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
68
75
64
26





(f=100

(fx=233
2.3
Disagreed

3.
Science subjects are not as interesting as other subjects.
27
35
11
27
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
108
105
22
27





(f=100

(fx=262
2.6
Agreed

4.
Our teachers make the subject lively and interesting.
14
28
34
24
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
56
84
68
24





(f=100

(fx=232
2.3
Disagreed

5.
Our teachers enjoy the subjects.
19
37
35
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
76
111
70
9





(f=100

(fx=266
2.7
Agreed

6.
Our teachers encourage us to take a greater interest in science subjects.
28
32
22
18
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
112
96
44
18





(f=100

(fx=270
2.7
Agreed

7.
Science subjects require more practical than theories.
34
41
8
17
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
136
123
16
17





(f=100

(fx=292
2.9
Agreed

Source: Field work, 2018
The table above indicates that there are partially qualified teachers for science subjects, also the teachers do not involve the students during class discussions. It also indicates that science subjects requires more practical aspects than the theories, whereas the practical aspects are not effectively taught due to the lack of scientific equipments.
4.4 Discussion the Findings
In previous chapters the researcher focused attention in some areas regarding to the study of gender differences and attitudes of students towards science subjects. In this area include; lack of qualified science teachers and negative attitudes of the students towards science subject.
From the information presented in the table above item no on the questions asked for the teachers: male students are more interested in science subjects than female students, our of 10 teachers, respondents, 5 respondents strongly agreed that, male students are more interested in science subjects than female students, 12 respondents agreed that, male students are more interested in science subject than female students, while 2 respondents disagreed that male students are more interested in science subject than female students, and 1 respondent strongly disagreed. This implies that, 5 respondents are the majority that says male students are more interested than female students, while few are in other part.





subject also required more practical aspect than theories, whereas the practical aspect are not effectively taught due to lack of science equipment.
4.5 Summary of Major Finding
These include:
It clearly showed that, majority of the teachers are male teachers, age between 25-30 years, they are married and N.C.E holder.  Also have 5-10 years working experience.
Male students showed more attitude towards science subjects, it also indicated that students are not interested in reading scientific books.
There is also difficulties in teaching and learning science subjects. The students found it difficult to solve scientific problems.
The teachers are trying their best to teach science subject effectively and efficiently, there are inadequate qualified teachers for science subject and practical aspect are not thought due to lack of scientific equipment.








CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
This chapter deals with the summary of the study, conclusion and recommendations based on the findings. The summary emphasizes on the major findings and drawing conclusion through such findings, given necessary recommendations to encourage and to develop through pointing the necessary requirements.
5.2 Summary of the Study
Based on the findings obtained from the study conducted and in answering the research questions, it isevident that Gusau secondary school students exhibit positive attitude toward science subjects. This was clearly seen from the mean response in the tables. The result of this study shows clearly that there is significant effect of gender on students’ attitude towards science subjects. The results indicated that boys have more positive attitude towards science subjectssuch as Chemistry, Physics and Biology than girls’ counterpart. From the result, it reveals that sex (gender) is the most significant variable which relates to students’ attitude towards science subjects.
This is in consonance with several studies that have suggested that boys demonstrated more positive attitude towards science subjects than girls’. Boys rated science as a subject more exciting and interested than girls. The reasons for girls developing negative attitude toward science subjects could be attributed to the following factors: social norms, cultural barriers, lack of role model, parental influence and personal influence.


5.3 Conclusion
This study has examined the effect of gender differences in the attitudes of students towards science subjects at the secondary level ofeducation in Gusau Metropolis. The result of the study reveals that gender has effect on the attitude of students towards science subjects. As part of developing the sector of our education scientifically, there is the need for students to acquire positive attitude towards science subjects. Developing students’ attitude positively increases and motivates students’ interest in the study of science which in turn brings positive development to both the nation and the individual. Students’ attitude in science determines their success in a particular field of endeavour. Favourable attitude result to good achievement, students’ interest in the study of science subjects should be developed by both boys and girls. This is because girls showed low interest or negative attitude towards science subjects, their interest or attitude should increase perhaps through encouragement from both parents and teachers. Also, having peer role models in science will motivate and increase girls’ interest or change their attitude positively.
5.3 Recommendations
Based on the study conducted, the researcher cameup with the following recommendations:
Students in secondary in Gusau metropolis schools should be exposed by the science teacher continually to challenging life situations about the benefits of science. This will help to shape their attitude positively toward science subjects.
Parent and school authorities should make clear to boys and girls in schools how also in natural science fundamental questions of human life are raised and answered.
Parents should make their children know that science subjects are made for both boys and girls so as to take away all forms of discrimination amongst them in the learning of science.
Students should be taught how science comes to statements on fundamental questions of our human and social existence.
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study
It is suggested that similar studies should be carried out in different locations to asserting the gender differences and attitude of students towards science subjects.
















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APPENDIX I
Questionnaire for Teachers on Gender differences in the attitude of Students towards Science Subjects.

I am Bello AbubakarNoma by name, am conducting a research on the Gender differences in the attitude of students towards science subjects. A case study of some selected secondary schools in Gusau. Please, check the answer that most agree with how you feel about science at this school. Answer how you feel and not how you think you shouldfeel. Then, select the choice which best reflects your response towardsthe following statements by putting (√) in the space provided for eachstatement. This data will be used for academic purpose only.
Thanks.
SECTION (A)
Biographical Information
SCHOOL:
SEX:   Male  (   ) Female   (   )
MARITAL STATUS:   Single  (   ) Married   (   )
AGE: 20-25  (   ) 25-30  (  ) 30 and above  (   )
EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION:  NCE (   )  HND  (   )   DEGREE (   )  MASTERS  (   )
YEARS OF EXPERIENCE: 1-5  (   )    5-10  (   )  10-15  (   )  15-20  (   )   20 and above  (   )






SECTION (B)
Instruction: Please respond appropriately
Key: SA (Strongly agree), A ( Agree), D(Disagree), SD(Strongly disagree).
S/N
ITEMS
SA
A
D
SD

1.
Male students are more interested in science subjects than female students.





2.
Male students express more confidence in science class than female students.





3.
Few female students enroll in science classes.





4.
Female students show more anxiety about science subjects than female students.





5.
I enjoy teaching science subject.





6.
Science subjects require more practical than theories.





7.
The students find it difficult to understand the words and expressions used in science subjects.





8.
The students find it difficult when they are asked to use what they have learned to solve new problems.





9.
The students often find difficult to follow scientific instructions.





10.
I always try to relate scientific concepts to our everyday life





11.
I always try to involve the students in my class discussion.





12.
I always try to get round the class during practical work.





13.
Science subjects are more appropriate for male students than female students.





14.
Male students are likely to succeed more in science subjects than female students.





15.
There should be gender equality in science classes and as well while teaching science subjects.






APPENDIX II
Questionnaire for Students on Gender differences in the attitude of Students towards Science Subjects.

I am Bello AbubakarNoma by name, am conducting a research on the Gender differences in the attitude of students towards science subjects. A case study of some selected secondary schools in Gusau. Please, check the answer that most agree with how you feel about science at this school. Answer how you feel and not how you think you shouldfeel. Then, select the choice which best reflects your response towardsthe following statements by putting (√) in the space provided for eachstatement. This data will be used for academic purpose only.
Thanks.
SECTION (A)
Biographical Information
SCHOOL:
CLASS:
SEX:   Male  (   ) Female   (   )
SECTION (B)
Instruction: Please respond appropriately
Key: SA (Strongly agree), A ( Agree), D(Disagree), SD(Strongly disagree).
S/N
ITEMS
SA
A
D
SD

1.
I am interested in science subjects.





2.
I quite do well at science subjects.





3.
I always attend science lesson.





4.
I always enjoy science lesson.





5.
I appreciate science subjects.





6.
There are qualified science subject teachers in our school.





7.
Our science subject teachers always get us involved during class discussion.





8.
Science subjects are not as interesting as other subjects.





9.
Our teachers make the subject lively and interesting.





10.
Our teachers enjoy the subjects.





11.
Our teachers encourage us to take a greater interest in science subjects.





12.
Science subjects require more practical than theories.





13.
I always find it difficult to understand the words and expressions used in science subjects.





14.
I always find it difficult to solve scientific problems in class.





15.
I often find the teachers instructions difficult to follow.





16.
I want to learn a lot more about science.





17.
I like reading books on science.





18.
I would like a career which involves science.










LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Biographic Information of Teachers

Frequency
Percentage %

Gender:
Male
Female
7
3
70
30

Age Bracket:
20-25yrs
25-30yrs
30 and above
3
4
3
30
40
30

Marital Status:
Single
Married
4
6
40
60

Academic Qualification
NCE
HND
Degree
Masters
5
1
4
0
50
10
40
0

Years of Experience
1-5
5-10
10-15
15-20
20 and above
2
5
2
1
0
20
50
20
10
0









Table 2: Biographic Information of Students

Frequency
Percentage %

Gender:
Male
Female
50
50
50
50

Class:
SS 1
SS 2
SS 3
30
35
35
30
35
35


Table 3: For Teachers
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks

1.
Male students are more interested in science subjects than female students.
5
2
2
1
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
20
6
4
1





(f=10

(fx=31
3.1
Agreed

2.
Male students express more confidence in science class than female students.
3
5
2
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
15
4
0





(f=10

(fx=31
3.1
Agreed

3.
Few female students enroll in science classes.
3
6
1
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
18
2
0





(f=10

(fx=32
3.2
Agreed

4.
Female students show more anxiety about science subjects than female students.
2
6
2
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
8
18
4
0





(f=10

(fx=30
3.0
Agreed


Table 4: For Students
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks



Male
Female





1.
I am interested in science subjects.
19
26
4
1
8
12
21
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
108
114
50
10





(f=100

(fx=282
2.8
Agreed

2.
I quite do well at science subjects.
15
22
10
3
9
19
16
6
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
96
123
52
9





(f=100

(fx=280
2.8
Agreed

3.
I always attend science lesson.
23
19
5
3
15
14
7
14
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
152
99
24
17





(f=100

(fx=292
2.9
Agreed

4.
I always enjoy science lesson.
7
29
9
5
3
18
20
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
40
141
58
14





(f=100

(fx=253
2.5
Agreed

5.
I appreciate science subjects.
10
19
15
6
5
23
17
5
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
60
126
64
11





(f=100

(fx=261
2.6
Agreed

6.
I want to learn a lot more about science.
23
16
9
2
24
19
7
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
188
105
32
2





(f=100

(fx=327
3.3
Agreed

7.
I like reading books on science.
8
16
16
10
2
7
32
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
40
69
96
19





(f=100

(fx=224
2.2
Disagreed

8.
I would like a career which involves science.
22
13
11
4
10
19
17
4
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
128
96
56
8





(f=100

(fx=288
2.9
Agreed




Table 5: For Teachers
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks

1.
The students find it difficult to understand the words and expressions used in science subjects.
4
5
1
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
16
15
2
0





(f=10

(fx=33
3.3
Agreed

2.
The students find it difficult when they are asked to use what they have learned to solve new problems.
3
4
1
2
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
12
2
2





(f=10

(fx=28
2.8
Agreed

3.
The students often find difficult to follow scientific instructions.
3
5
1
1
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
15
2
1





(f=10

(fx=30
3.0
Agreed

4.
Science subjects are more appropriate for male students than female students.
1
4
3
2

4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
4
12
6
2





(f=10

(fx=24
2.4
Disagreed

5.
Male students are likely to succeed more in science subjects than female students.
2
4
3
1
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
8
12
6
1





(f=10

(fx=27
2.7
Agreed


Table 6: For Students
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks



Male
Female





1.
I always find it difficult to understand the words and expressions used in science subjects.
19
13
15
3
23
12
8
7
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
168
75
46
10





(f=100

(fx=299
3.0
Agreed

2.
I always find it difficult to solve scientific problems in class.
20
21
8
1
15
27
4
4
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
140
144
24
5





(f=100

(fx=313
3.1
Agreed

3.
I often find the teacher’s instructions difficult to follow.
14
18
13
5
17
16
8
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
124
102
20
14





(f=100

(fx=260
2.6
Agreed






Table 7: For Teachers
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks

1.
I enjoy teaching science subject.
3
5
2
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
15
4
0





(f=10

(fx=31
3.1
Agreed

2.
Science subjects require more practical than theories.
6
4
0
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
24
12
0
0





(f=10

(fx=36
3.6
Agreed

3.
I always try to relate scientific concepts to our everyday life
3
6
1
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
18
2
0





(f=10

(fx=32
3.2
Agreed

4.
I always try to involve the students in my class discussion.
3
7
0
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
21
0
0





(f=10

(fx=33
3.3
Agreed

5.
I always try to get round the class during practical work.
3
6
1
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
12
18
2
0





(f=10

(fx=32
3.2
Agreed

6.
There should be gender equality in science classes and as well while teaching science subjects.
5
5
0
0
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
20
15
0
0





(f=10

(fx=35
3.5
Agreed


Table 8: For Students
S/N
Items
F
Assigned scores
Fx
X
Remarks

1.
There are qualified science subject teachers in our school.
20
21
46
13
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
80
63
92
13





(f=100

(fx=248
2.5
Agreed/ Disagreed

2.
Our science subject teachers always get us involved during class discussion.
17
25
32
26
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
68
75
64
26





(f=100

(fx=233
2.3
Disagreed

3.
Science subjects are not as interesting as other subjects.
27
35
11
27
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
108
105
22
27





(f=100

(fx=262
2.6
Agreed

4.
Our teachers make the subject lively and interesting.
14
28
34
24
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
56
84
68
24





(f=100

(fx=232
2.3
Disagreed

5.
Our teachers enjoy the subjects.
19
37
35
9
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
76
111
70
9





(f=100

(fx=266
2.7
Agreed

6.
Our teachers encourage us to take a greater interest in science subjects.
28
32
22
18
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
112
96
44
18





(f=100

(fx=270
2.7
Agreed

7.
Science subjects require more practical than theories.
34
41
8
17
4(SA)
3(A)
2 (D)
1 (SD)
136
123
16
17





(f=100

(fx=292
2.9
Agreed

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