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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM WOUND SEPSIS

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM WOUND SEPSIS

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM WOUND SEPSIS




BY




B.Sc (Hons) BIOLOGY






DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY








SEPTEMBER, 2020

TITLE PAGE

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM WOND SEPSIS.



A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO

THE DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

KEBBI STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ALIERO, NIGERIA.

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF A BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.Sc Hons) DEGREE IN BIOLOGY



BY


(ADM.NO. 1610213062)



DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY





SEPTEMBER, 2019


APPROVAL PAGE

This research project was carried out by Adamu Amina Magawata(adm. No.1610213062) has been read and approved by the undersigned as meeting the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. Hons) Degree in Biology, Department of Animal And Encironmental Biology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero.



…………………………………..                                                DATE ..………………………

Mal. Muhammad Garba yalmo

Project supervisor



……………………………………                                               DATE ..………………………

Mal.Muhammad Garba yalmo

Project Coordinator



……………………………………                                               DATE ..………………………

Head of Department



……………………………………                                               DATE ..………………………

External Examiner






DEDICATION


I dedicated this report to my irreplaceable parents Alhaji Adamu Magawata and Hajiya Aishatu Aliyu .And my lovable husband Ibrahim Shehu Aliero.






















ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


All praises and glory be to Allah (SWA) who made everything possible. My profound gratitude and appreciation goes to my kind and ever assisting supervisor Mal.Muhammad Garba Yelmo.

I am forever indebted to my father Alhaji Adamu Magawata Who has immensely assisted me all through my life together with my beloved mother hajjiya Aishatu Aliyu who has been in support all through my endeavors may Allah (SWA) continue to shower his infinite blessings on them. And also my beloved husband Ibrahim Shehu Aliero who supported me and guides me through may Allah blessed you and protected you all. 

Furthermore, I am grateful to the members of the family Hafsat Adamu Magawata, Fauziya Adamu Magawata, Nana And Uzairu Adamu Magawata and all my younger ones for their tireless support, patience, endurance and encouragement.Jazakumullahu Khairan.

Asincere  appreciation to my friends for their patience, contributions and support. I will forever be thankful to Rukayya Abdullahi, Mariya Sambawa, Khadija shehu DKG, Farida Attahiru.


.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents               Pages

APPROVAL PAGE ii

DEDICATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

ABSTRACT vii

CHAPTER ONE 1

1.0. INTRODUCTION 1

1.1  Aim and Objectives of the Study 3

1.2. Statement of the Research Problem 3

1.3. Justification for the study 4

CHAPTER TWO 5

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 5

2.1 Medical Relevance of Antimicrobial Soap 7

2.2 Normal Skin Micro Biota and Soap 8

CHAPTERTHREE 10

3.0. MATERIALS AND METHODS 10

3.1. Study Area 10

3.2. Sample Collection 10

11

3.3 Test Bacteria 11

3.4. Disc preparation 11

3.5. Preparation of Soap Solution and Soaking of Discs with Soap 11

3.6. Antibacterial activity of three medicated soaps on Staphylococcus aureus 12

CHAPTER FOUR 13

4.0 RESULT 13

       Table 4.1: 14

Table 4.2: 15

Table 4.3: 16

CHAPTER FIVE 17

5.0DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 17

5.1. Discussion 17

5.2.Conclusion 19

5.3. Recommendations 20

REFERENCES 21

APPENDICES 27



                                                    

ABSTRACT


The  antibacterial  activity  of  different  types  of  medicated  soaps  on  Staphylococcus  aureus isolated  from  wound  sepsis was  evaluated by disc diffusion assay.  The study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus isolated and subcultured were sensitive to the three different medicated soaps. The zones of inhibition at concentration 300m\g\ml were highest in Septol with 25.0mm ±0.45 followed by Dettol with 20.0mm ±0.98 and least in Premier with 10.0mm ±0.65. The results showed that medicated soaps were effective against Staphylococcus aureus involved in wound infections in humans.  Therefore, medicated soaps could be used in cleaning the skin during time of hurt or cut, and should be used moderately by consumers to avoid irritation and resistance to pathogens. The assayed antiseptic soaps have demonstrated satisfactory antimicrobial effect, particularly in the antibacterial activity. Presumably, the observed variability in antimicrobial activity is due to difference of AAI contents, and type of formulations.  Other studies have found that soaps containing AAIs to remove more bacteria than simply washing with beauty soap and water (Obi, 2014).  Results from the control in this study has proved the use of beauty soap in cleaning wounds and other skin infections as inappropriate as susceptibility tests reveals. The control for the experiment which is the beauty soap sample showed no observable inhibition against the test organism. This justifies why people do not use the control soap  as medication in control of pathogens via bacteri static or bactericidal activities even though it possess saponin effects for which reason they are used a regular soap to primarily wash out dirt from body surfaces and leave perfume on the skin.

 




CHAPTER ONE

1.0.    INTRODUCTION

       The human skin makes contact with thousands of microbes that are pathogenic to man. When proper hygiene is not practiced, these microbes replicate, produce toxic substances and eventually cause disease. Some of these microbes cause diseases on the skin while others become pathogenic only when they migrate to mucous membranes and other vital organs.

       Antibacterial activity is the ability to either destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. This can be referred to as either cidal or static effects respectively.  This is significant with respects to the human body in preventing sepsis and skin infections (Higaki et al., 2015). Soap cleanses because molecules are attracted to the fatty part of the anions of the soap solution and are pulled off by dirty surface into water.  Antiseptic  soaps  contain  additional  ingredients,  usually  for  the  treatment  of  skin disorders  (Eckburg  et  al., 2005).  Antiseptic soaps have germicidal substances like,  irgasan,trichlorocarbanlide, (TCC) etc, incorporated into them to enhance their antibacterial activity (Friedman and Wolf, 2017). These germicidal substances are added in a specific a how to use the soap for various purposes.

      Normal microflora is found on the surface of all human skin (Prescott et al., 2008). The normal skin bacterial flora in human is composed of three major groups of gram-positive bacteria: the coliform bacteria, the micrococci and the staphylococci with only a minor component of gram-negative bacilli (Nobel, 2014).  This  is  because  the  skin  is  a  comparatively  dry  habitat,  with  available  water  as  the major  factor  controlling  growth.  Occlusion  of  the  skin  is  a  potent   way  to  increase  the  number  of bacteria on the skin (Breuer et al., 2002). Staphylococcus species, though a common cause of human infections are found as non-pathogenic microorganisms in human samples. Staphylococcus aureus is the most important member of this group (Diekema et. al., 2001) and has been associated with different clinical conditions and syndromes (Javid et. al., 2006). In (Ikegbunam et al., 2013), Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen affecting both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals frequently resulting in high morbidity and complications which constitutes problems to health. It is a gram-positive, non-spore forming cocci bacterium that is a member of the firmicutes, which are found as normal human microbiota of the skin and nasal cavity. It is the most frequently encountered bacterial species in hospitals (Emmerson, 2004). The major reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals are colonized in infected patients and hospitals workers (Javid et al., 2006). Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are at risk of developing endogenous infections or transmitting infections to health care workers and patients. Its disease manifestation ranges from minor skin infections to life threatening diseases such as folliculitis, furuncle (boil), dermitis (eczema)  carbuncle, ulcers, pneumonia sepsis and wound infections. Staphylococcus aureus may also cause food poisoning, scalded-skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) through production of toxins. 

       Wound is defined as break in integrity of the skin or discontinuity of the skin as a result of breakage. Dermatitis or Eczema syndrome is an inflammation of the skin characterized by itching and scalded- skin and an infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Wound healing or restoration of skin continuity, a biological process can be accomplished by regeneration, cell proliferation and collage production which can be encouraged by washing the wound surface and other infected skin lesions like atopic dermatitis especially with antiseptic soap which due to its content of phenolic compounds help in keeping off organisms like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa away from the sites (Al-saimary et al., 2013). 

      (Baker et al. 2004), described antisepsis as the most convenient way of preventing infection usually by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Sterilization is described as the complete destruction of all living matters. This description is often restricted to destruction pathogenic organisms only. Therefore, the aim of this work is to determine the antibacterial activities of different antiseptic soaps on Staphylococcus aureus from clinical samples. In achieving this, the effectiveness of the different antiseptic soaps on the clinically isolated Staphylococcus aureus was determined through measurements of zone of inhibitions.

1.1.       Aim and Objectives of the Study


The aim of this research was to determine antibacterial activity of three medicated soaps on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound.

The objectives were to: 


Isolate Staphylococcus aureus from wound sepsis.

Determine the antibacterial activity of three medicated soap on staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound sepsis.

To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus from the skin.

To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of different concentrations of soap on Staphylococcus aureus.


1.2.          Statement of the Research Problem

Bacterial infection particularly Staphylococcal wound infection is of public health problem (Johnson et al, 2002). Thus, requires topical application of antiseptics to overcome the menace of wound sepsis. The best method for killing or inhibiting their growth is of great importance to man, as such confirmation of the efficient antibacterial activity of dettol, septol and premier which are commonly used medicated soaps is a milestone to achieving this goal.


1.3.   Justification for the study


As this research work evaluate antibacterial activity of medicated soaps, the result obtained could be of helpful to health care providers on curative strategy against staphylococcal wound infections.






















CHAPTER TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW


      The 1.8m2 human skin has folds, invaginations and specialized niches. This ecosystem inhabits diverse groups of microorganism providing them with shelter and nutrients. Soaps and other cleansing agents have been around for quite a long time. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. Bacteria are very diverse and present in soil, water, sewage and on human body and are of great importance with reference to health (Johnson et al., 2015). In 1961 the U.S public Health service recommendation directed that personnel wash their hands with soap and water for 1 to 2 minutes before and after client contact. The antibacterial soaps can remove 65 to 85% bacteria from human skin (Osborne and Grube, 2012). 

        Although fats and oils are general ingredients of soaps but some detergent additives enhance the antibacterial activities of soaps (Friedman and Wolf, 2017). Transient bacteria are deposited on the skin surface from environmental sources and cause skin infections. Examples of such bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Fluit et al., 2001) and Staphylococcus aureus (Higaki et al., 2015). The importance of hand washing is more crucial when it is associated to health care workers because of possible cross contaminating of bacteria that may be pathogenic or opportunistic (Richards et al., 1999). Hand hygiene and prevention of infection through the use of medicated soaps has been well recognized. A large number of chemical compounds have the ability to inhibit the growth and metabolism of microorganisms or kill them. The number of chemicals is enormous, probably at least 10, 000 with 1,000 commonly used in the hospital and homes. Chemicals exist as solids, liquids and gases. Of the many groups of chemicals used to reduce or destroy microbes important groups include hydrogen, phenols soaps, detergents, ammonia compounds, alcohols, heavy metals, acids and certain special compound. Disinfection, decontamination, antisepsis/sanitization and sterilization, just naming a few are terms that describe the process of cleaning by either soaps/detergents or other cleaning agents. Numerous cleaning agents are available in the market, which are presented in various forms with distinct formulation. Triclosan, trichlorocarbanilide and P-chloro-in-xylenol (PCMX/Chloroxylenol) are the commonly used anti-bacterials in medicated soaps. These are generally only contained at preservation level unless the product is clearly marked as antibacterial, antiseptic, or germicidal (Larson et al., 1989).

        Scrubbing body or hands, particularly with soaps is the first of defense against bacteria and other pathogens that can cause colds the Flu, skin infection and even deadly communicable diseases (Kimel, 2017). Conceptually, many people consider that an antimicrobial portion of soaps is effective at preventing communicable disease. But now researchers highlight that too much of it can have the opposite effect spreading disease/infection instead of preventing them (Poole, 2002). Over-utilization of medicated rendering might result in antimicrobial resistance and even rendering an individual more vulnerable to microbial attacks such as opportunistic skin infections (White and McDermolt, 2001). Unfortunately, in the long run may affect the consumers, because overuse of these agents can ascribe to the emergence of drug, resistant micro organisms. This research work carried out in 2004 was aimed at determining the antibacterial activities of some commonly used medicated soaps in selected human pathogens.,



2.1.   Medical Relevance of Antimicrobial Soap


       Soap is a water soluble compound made by a reaction (called saponification) between caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) or caustic potash (potassium hydroxide) with animal and/or vegetable fats (oils). Soap has surface active properties to wet a greasy (oily) soiled surface and suspend the oil and dirt in the water for rinsing off. Soap as a cleansing agent can be manufactured in bars, granules, or tablets as it is the case with most antiseptic soaps. Antiseptic soaps have germ icidal substances like, irgasan, trichlorocarbanlide, (TCC) etc, incorporated into them to enhance their antibacterial activity (Friedman and Wolf, 2017). 

     The best in antibacterial activity of all the soaps used is sample A exhibiting maximum zone of inhibition for the test isolates. This could be attributed to its unique formulation of duo combination of irgasan and potassium mercuric iodide. Sample B is primarily used for its scabicide effect; however, it exhibited moderate antibacterial activity which is attributed to monosulfiram within its formulation. 

        Generally, antiseptic soap could be any cleaning soaps to which AAIs have been added. These chemicals kill bacteria and other microorganisms, though they are not effective at deactivating viruses just like any other kind of soaps. Soaps are intended for reduction of the inoculum sizes of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms; the latter include the normal flora. Of these, two types are well known viz. resident flora that are the normal flora of the skin and other human body parts, and transient flora that are usually picked up from objects or other human being.  Thus, it is routine practice to wash hands prior to eating, after examining a patient and before surgery, in order to   remove some potentially harmful transient flora as well as reduce a number of resident floras, which might cause opportunistic infections (Nobel,2014).


2.2.    Normal Skin Micro Biota and Soap


      The skin harbors diverse communities of microorganisms, and alterations to these communities can impact the effectiveness of the skin as a barrier to infectious organisms or injury. As the global availability and adoption of antibacterial products increases, it is important to understand how these products affect skin microbial communities of people living in rural areas of developing countries, where risks of infection and injury often differ from urban populations in developed countries. We investigated the effect of antibacterial soap on skin microbial communities in a rural Malagasy population that practices subsistence agriculture in the absence of electricity and running water. We quantified the amount of soap used by each participant and obtained skin swab samples at three time points: prior to soap use, immediately after one week of soap use, and two weeks after soap use was discontinued. Soap use did not significantly impact ecological measures of diversity and richness (alpha diversity). 

         The microbes (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, Archaea) that live in and on the human body are abundant and diverse, with important implications for health (Blaser et al., 2012) . These microbes are thought to have co-evolved with humans in relation to the body sites they inhabit, providing an array of functions for the host, ranging from digestion to immune defense (Nature et al., 2012  ). While research endeavors such as the Human Microbiome Project  (Turnbaugh et al.,2007 ) aim to establish the normal range of variation in human microbiomes (encompassing all microbes, their genes, and functions) and effects on health, this task has been challenging due to the marked variation of microbial communities (groups of microorganisms that coexist in a mutual space) within and across populations (Foxman et a.,l 2010) . With the exception of a few studies (Manus park, 2017 ), microbiome research has focused on people living in Western settings, such as the United States and Europe, and is predominantly centered around the gut microbiome.

         Less is known about the microbial communities on human skin, despite it being the largest organ and home to a variety of bacteria and other organisms important for health (Rosenthal et al .,2011 ). The skin also acts as an interface between the human body and the outside environment, and skin anatomy and physiology allow different microbes to flourish across various skin sites (grice et al., 2011). While most skin communities are characterized by fourfour bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria), the species-level diversity of skin microbes is much more robust (Grice et al., 2011). Due to the dynamic nature of the skin microbiome and the role of the skin as an intermediary between humans and the outside world, efforts have been made to understand the development of skin microbial communities (Conlen et .,al 2012 ). These studies reveal that immediately after birth, infant skin microbial communities are relatively homogenous across body sites (Capone et al., 2011) . Colonization of the skin with new microbial organisms does not begin until about three months of age, and bacterial composition at a young age may have an impact on an individual’s microbiome and health in the future, possibly affecting the skin microbiome’s stability and immune function (Capone et a.,l  2011). However, these bacterial communities change over time, with body sites eventually differing in microbial composition as a child matures (Conlen et al., 2011 ). For example, physiological changes throughout puberty, such as increased density and thickness of body hair, drastically impact the overall structure of skin microbial communities by altering the local ecosystem of certain skin sites and the microbial communities that each site can supported (conlen et al,. 2012).


CHAPTERTHREE

3.0.     MATERIALS AND METHODS


3.1.   Study Area


The study was conducted in Aliero town in northern Nigeria’s Kebbi state. Located in the South East of kebbi state within latitude 12016’42’N and longitude 4027’6’E.The estimated population of the L G A is 232,846 people in 2006.It has an area of 51Km2. 


Figure 1: Indicating Aliero location and environs 

3.2.     Sample Collection


The three medicated soap sample were purchased from Aliero market in Kebbi. The batch numbers expiry date were considered.The soaps used were,Dettol, Premier and Septol.The sample been collected were placed in separate sterile polythene bag, brought to Microbiology laboratory kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero





3.3.    Test Bacteria


Staphalococcus aureaus were obtained from the Department of microbiology, Federal medical Centre Birnin kebbi and transferredto Kebbi State University of Science and technology Aliero Department of microbiology. Biochemical tests were carried out to confirm the isolate.

3.4.     Disc preparation


What man fitter paper were punched out as discs hundreds of the punched discs were packed into three transparent glass containers and sterilized at the temperature of 1000c for one hour so as to get rid of the contaminants.

3.5.   Preparation of Soap Solution and Soaking of Discs with Soap


10g each of the three medicated soap were weighed and slashed with a table knife, mashed and dissolved with 30 ml of distilled water and stored at room temperature.  Later the pushed out discs were immersed into the soap solution and all owned to soap properly. After which they were remove and driced using hot air over for 10 minutes and kept in the  glass container for sterility purposes till time of use.

3.6.    Antibacterial activity of three medicated soaps on Staphylococcus aureus


Antibacterial activity of the three medicated soaps on: 

Agar diffusion method: this was done using Mueller Hinton Agar and a culture plate containing staphylococcus aureus. The melted MHA was poured into plates and allowed to solidify. Then the staphylococcus aureuswere seeded. Impregnated discs were placed on the agar plates accordingly. The plates were then inverted incubated for 24 hours at 370C.





                                                             CHAPTER FOUR




4.0 RESULT


The  antibacterial  activity  of  different  types  of  medicated  soaps  on  Staphylococcus  aureus isolated  from  wound  sepsis was  evaluated by disc diffusion assay.  The study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus isolated and subcultured were sensitive to the three different medicated soaps. The zones of inhibition were highest in Septol with 25.0mm ±0.45 followed by Dettol with 20.0mm ±0.98 and least in Premier with 10.0mm ±0.65. The results showed that medicated soaps were effective against Staphylococcus aureus involved in wound infections in humans.  Therefore, medicated soaps could be used in cleaning the skin during time of hurt or cut, and should be used moderately by consumers to avoid irritation and resistance to pathogens.

Table 4.1

The table shows the antibacterial activity of septol medicated soap on s.aureus. The septol medicated soap shows effectiveness on the test isolates whereby it has the highest zone of inhibition at concentration 300ml/m.

Table 4.2

This table also shows the effectiveness against s.aureus isolate where it has the highest zone of inhibition at concentration 300ml/m.

Table 4.3

The table also shows the effectiveness on test isolate where it has the lowest zone of inhibition. But it shows the highest zone of inhibition at concentration 300ml\m. 





Table 4.1: Antibacterial activity of   Septol medicated soap on S. aureus.




Soap        Conc. 

mg/ml                                                                      Zone of inhibition (mm)

                                                                                    Staphylococcus aureus


Septol                100                                        16.0±0.65                                          



                           200                                       14.00±0.44


                           300                                       25.00±0.45


Beauty soap        300                                      8.00 ±0.02




The results were expressed as mean ±SD of triplicates. Values with different superscripts are significantly different when compared to control within a column.























Table 4.2: Antibacterial activity of Dettol medicated soap on S.aureus.




Soap           Conc. 

mg/mlzone of inhibition (mm)

S, aureus.




Dettol               100                                 11.00±0.25                                              


                          200                                13.00±0.78                                             


                          300                                20.00±0.98                                             


Beauty soap       300                               8.00±0.00                                              




The results were expressed as mean±SD of triplicates. Values with different superscripts are significantly different when compared to control within a column. 





















Table 4.3: Antibacterial activity of premier cool medicated soap on  S.aureus.




Soap           Conc. 

                   mg/ml                                          zone of inhibition (mm)

                                                                                 S, aureus




Premier cool     100                                                       14.00±0.44                                                


                           200                                                       12.00±0.33


                           300                                                       10.00±0.65                                              


Beauty soap        300                                                       7.00±0.0




The results were expressed as mean±SD of triplicates. Values with different superscripts are significantly different when compared to control within a column.








CHAPTER FIVE


5.0DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


5.1.   Discussion


     Soap is a water soluble compound made by a reaction (called saponification) between caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) or caustic potash (potassium hydroxide) with animal and/or vegetable fats (oils). Soap has surface active properties to wet a greasy (oily) soiled surface and suspend the oil and dirt in the water for rinsing off. Soap as a cleansing agent  can be manufactured in bars, granules, or tablets as it is the case with most antiseptic soaps have germicidal substance like irgasan trichlorobanlide, (TCC) etc, incorporated into them to enhance their antibacterial activity (Friedman and Wolf, 2017). 

            Generally, antiseptic soap could be any cleaning soaps to which AAIs have been added. These chemicals kill bacteria and other microorganisms, though they are not effective at deactivating viruses just like any other kind of soaps. Soaps are intended for reduction of the inoculum sizes of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms; the latter include the normal flora. Of these, two types are well known viz. resident flora that are the normal flora of the skin and other human body parts, and transient flora that are usually picked up from objects or other human being.  Thus, it is routine practice to wash hands prior to eating, after examining a patient and before surgery, in order to remove some potentially harmful transient flora as well as reduce a number of resident floras, which might cause opportunistic infections (Nobel,2014).  

The study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus isolated and subcultured were sensitive to the three different medicated soaps. When the efficacy of the antiseptic soap were assayed using the disc agar diffusion method, Septol medicated soap were found to be most effective against the test organism having the highest zone of inhibition (25mm±0.45), followed by Dettol Medicated soap  (20.0mm±0.98) and Premier medicated soap (10mm±0.65) respectively. It was observed that significant differences exist among the different concentrations of soap samples with septol medicated soap having higher zones of inhibition when compared with others. The results obtained in this study are in agreement with the work of (Obi, 2014) on antibacterial activities of some medicated soaps on selected human pathogens. 

      The assayed antiseptic soaps have demonstrated satisfactory antimicrobial effect, particularly in the antibacterial activity. Presumably, the observed variability in antimicrobial activity is due to difference of AAI contents, and type of formulations.  Other studies have found that soaps containing AAIs to remove more bacteria than simply washing with beauty soap and water (Obi, 2014).  Results from the control in this study has proved the use of beauty soap in cleaning wounds and other skin infections as inappropriate as susceptibility tests reveals. 

    The control for the experiment which is the beauty soap sample showed no observable inhibition against the test organism. This justifies why people do not use the control soap  as medication in control of pathogens via bacteristatic or bactericidal activities even though it possess saponin effects for which reason they are used a regular soap to primarily wash out dirt from body surfaces and leave perfume on the skin. 

5.2.   Conclusion


From the sensitivity testing it was found out that medicated soap were effective against Staphylococcus aureusisolated from wounds in human. This is because medicated soaps have pherobic contents. 

5.3.   Recommendations


Since medicated soap has been found to have inhibitors, it is then advised to be used in batting at the time one gets hurt or cuts on the skin. It is also recommended to wash surface of cuts immediately especially children with medicated soap before medication is given.






















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Plate1: Showing the zone of inhibition obtained from staphylococcus aureus.

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