I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher (Mal. Yalmo) as well as the head of department. who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful seminar on the topic 

(role of plankton on fresh water body in Sabiyel river), which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I came to know about so many new things I am really thankful to them. 

Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and my husband who helped me a lot in finalizing this seminar within the limited time frame.


Zooplanktons are microscopic organisms that are suspended in water, they include many kinds of protozoans, micro-crustaceans and other micro invertebrates that are planktonic in water bodies (Omudu and Odeh, 2006). These are heterotrophic planktonic animals which constitute an important food source for many species of aquatic organism (Guy, 1992). They may serve as indicator of water quality. Zooplankton to be rich in the essential amino and fatty acids, docosahexacnoic acid (DHA) and elcosaptaenoic acid (Allan and Dall, 1991). Zooplankton provides fish with nutrients since fish requires, proteins, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water in the right proportion(Guy, 1992). The fresh water forms of zooplankton are generally smaller in size and are represented by fewer animal phyla than their marine counterparts. They are globally recognized as pollution indicator organism in the aquatic environment (Yakubu et al., 2000).

1.1 Definition



Palatability, viscosity, solubility, odors, and chemical reactions are influenced by temperature There by, the sedimentation and chlorination processes and biological oxygen demand (BOD) are temperature dependent. It also affects the biosorption process of the dissolved heavy metals in water. Most people fmd water at temperatures of 10-15°C most palatable 


Materials decayed from organic matter, namely, vegetation and inorganic matter such as soil stones. and rocks Impart color to water, which is objectionable for esthetic reason. not for health reason.


Turbidity is optical property of water that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight lines (EPA, 1986).


Conductivity is the measure of concentration of dissolved ions (Rowe and Dean, 1998). Conductivity of fresh water bodies in tropical regions varies from 10µscm-1- 1000µscms-1(Rowe et al., 2000). A

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

BOD is the measured amount of oxygen required by acclimated micro-organisms to biologically degrade the organic matter in the water (Henry and Heinke, 2005). 

Total Dissolve Solids (TDS)

Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) is a measure of inorganic salts, organic matter and other dissolved materials in water (EPA, 1986).

1.2 Chemical Parameters


Turbidity is optical property of water that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight lines (EPA, 1986).


Water temperature was determined with a mercury thermometer, caliberated to the nearest 1oC. The temperature was taken by lowering the thermometer into the surface water for two minutes to allow equilibrium before recording.After which the reading was taken and recorded in degree Celcius.


Depth of each station was determined with mushroom string or Secchi disc. In this method, the depth of each station was measured by dipping the spring until it settles down. The measurement was taken using a measuring tape or ruler and recorded in metresup

Determination of Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Samples from each sampling location was determined using Winkler method. This was carried by filling a 250cm3sample bottle by making sure bubbles are avoided. The tube was tapped with a stopper to bring air bubble that could have been trapped in the bottle water. 2cm3 of 50% manganous sulphate solution was added to each of the samples followed by2 cm3 alkali iodide (Winkler Reagent), using a dropping pipette, ensuring that the tip of the pipette was below the surface of the liquid ineach case. The stopper was replaced carefully and mixed by inverting the bottle several times. This made water samples to fluctuates, and samples was maintained at this fluctuation state in the field till they are brought to the laboratory where they was acidified with 4cm3 of 50% concentrated H2SO4 that is 1:1 Sulphuric acid solution, each delivered was below the liquid surface using dropping pipette and this make sample to turn to orange in colour. The bottle was covered again and content was mixed thoroughly to ensure even distribution of iodine gas that could be liberated at this stage, where oxygen is present. Then 100cm3 of the treated sample was measured into a 250cm3 conical flask and titrated against 0.01215 N sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3.5H2O) solution till a pale yellow colour is formed to blue. The titration process continue till the blue colour disappeared completely. Based on the technique, the iodine liberated was equivalent to the origin dissolve oxygen in the water sample. Thus the relationship;

DO (mg/1) = 100 8 X n. V1


Where n = normality ofNa2S2O3.5H2O

V= Volume of Sample titrated

V1= Volume of Na2S2O3.5H2O used up

Determination of BOD

Determination of BOD was carried by collecting water samples in 250cm3 sample bottles from each of the sampling locations, these bottles was covered with a opaque materials to avoid light penetration. The samples were kept in a dark enclosure inside laboratory for five days.

Bennett and Humphries (1974) and Bryan (1976) technique was followed for determination of BOD5 in water samples. At day five, amount of DO in each of the samples bottles was determined as in DO above procedure. Thus approximate BOD5 of each sample was deducted as follows;

BOD5 (mg/1) = DO1 – DO5


DO1 = Value of DO at day 1

DO5 = value of DO at day 5

Determination of pH

The surface water was collected in plastic bottles from each sampling station, and was transported to the laboratory, pH was determined with JENWAY 3015 Model pH meter at 25oC. The meter was standardized with buffer solution at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 electrode was dipped into the water sample and reading was taken and recorded as described (Panday et al., 2005).

Determination of Electrical Conductivity (EC)

Conductivity was measured with WINDAUS Electrical Conductivity metre (Model 9008) which was calibrated to 35oC before measuring the EC. The electrode was dipped inside the sample and the reading was taken directly from the machine and recorded as electrical conductivity in s/cm as described by(UNEP, 2004).

3.5.9 Nitrates (NO3-)

Nitrate (NO2-) is reduced to nitrate (NO3-) in the presence of Cadmium (Cd). This method uses commercially available Cd granules coated with 2% copper sulphate (CuSO4) packed in a glass column. The Nitrate (NO3-) produced is determined by diazoting it with colour reagent containing sulfanilamide coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediaminedihydrochloride (NEDD) to form highly colouredazo dye. The colour developed is measured colorimetrically at 410 nm. A correction was made for any NO3- present in the sample by analyzing the sample without the reduction step. A standard graph was plotted to obtain the factor. Nitrates were calculated as:

NO3- mg/1 = Optical density x Factor

           Amount of sample taken (ml)

Where, O.D. = Optical Density

3.6.0 Phosphates (PO4-3) 

In a conical flask containing 100ml of sample, 4ml of strong acid and 4ml of ammonium molybdate were added followed by 1o drops of SnCl2. The blue colour developed was measured after 10 minutes at 690 nm with colorimeter model Photochem5.0. It is necessary to make a standard graph before the analysis of sample to obtain the factor. The instrument was set by running a reagent blank. The phosphates were calculated as;

PO4-3 as mg/1 = O.D. x factor

Amount of sample taken (ml)

Where, O.D. =Optical Density



50 ml of distilled water was placed in a 250ml conical flask 25ml of concentrated NH4 solution, 20ml of the water sample, 5 drop of the eriochrome black T indicator solution and 1ml of 20% NACN was added. The solution was titratd with 0.02N versenate to a bright blue end point (Jackson, 1970).


The flame photometer was set up and the instrument readout was caliberated using the standard solution, this was set to zero while aspiring distilled water on blank solution meter reading was set at 100% emission while aspiring the top concentration of the standards. The percentage emission reading of all the intermediate standard solutions plot against the standard curve on linear graph paper was recorded. The sample solution was aspirated and the reading was recorded (E reading with 0 and top standard after every 10 to 20 samles determinations). The concentration of the element in sample solution was read (Asah, 1965).

1.3  Definition of Planktons


Planktons are organisms that their size, mobility or both are at the mercy of water movements (Lind, 1979). Limnologist generally considers these to be tiny forms of life. However, this group encompasses organisms whose sizes span three orders of magnitude (Panday, et al., 2005). Planktons include forms of aquatic bacteria, ultra-algae only a few microns in diameter and macroscopic forms of crustacean, several millimeters long. 


Phytoplankton are the primary producers of their environment, meaning they are the first organisms to produce energy, which they create from light sources, such as the Sun. They convert acquired light energy into carbohydrates through photosynthesis. Energy not used by the phytoplankton for maintenance is available as food for the animals that consume it.


Zooplankton are heterotrophic organisms that consume phytoplankton. According to the biochemist Alfred J. Lotka, this makes them secondary consumers, as their energy is obtained from consuming the primary producers of energy in their environment. As in phytoplankton, some of the energy obtained from their food source is used for maintenance, and the rest is available to the animal that consumes the zooplankton. This may be another zooplankontic organism or a larger animal that grazes on plankton.

1.4 Classification of Zooplanktons

Zooplankton consists of two basic categories;



Holoplankton spend essentially their whole life-cycle or existence in water column, example, include chaetognaths, pteropods, larvaceans, and many recording,ores and many cepepods (Steidinger and Walker, 1994).they are characterized by broad physiological tolerance ranges, rapid growth rates, and behavioral patterns which promote their survival in estuarine and marine water. The numerically dominant groups of the holoplankton are calanoid copepods. The carnivorous fish consume zooplankton (USEPA, 2006). 

Meroplanktons  spend parts of their life cycle on the bottom and include larval and benthic ones, molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. These organisms do not remain as plankton permanently, rather, they are planktonic component in transition, which eventually become larger organisms. After a period of time in the plankton, meroplanktons either graduate to the nekton or adopt a benthic (often sessile) lifestyle on the seafloor. Meroplanktons consist of larval stages of organisms such as sea urchins, starfish, crustaceans and dinoflagellates and diatoms (Aldridge et al., 1995).

1.5  Effects of Temperature on Zooplankton

Temperature can be defined as the degree of hotness or coldness of an organism or an environment. It is usually measured in degree Celsius (0C). Temperature affects enzymes function, which affect how living things carryout everyday metabolic processes, such as synthesis of protein and other chemical reactions. At low temperature, enzymes function is lower, but it is still working, but at higher temperature, the enzymes bonds are destroyed and the enzymes are denatured, so it cannot carry out it’s function of catalyzing reaction anymore (Michael, 1999).

All metabolic rates of zooplanktons are dependent on temperature. Temperature affects both the physiology and ecology of zooplanktons. The physiological effects include mortality at high or low temperature, which is the most drastic physiological effect. A similar research carried out on effect of temperature on heart rate of Daphnia which is by examining Daphnia at three different temperatures, 40C, 200C and 300C. Daphnia also known as water fleas, are small crustaceans that live in fresh water. They serve as important source of food for fish and other aquatic organisms. They respond quickly to a change in environment because they are such tiny organism and are transparent, so it is easy to observe their heart rate. Daphnia are ectotherms and conformers. This is because their internal temperature varies according to external temperature. As Daphnia metabolic rate increases, so does the heart rate in order to supply oxygen to the heart and body. As heart rate increases temperature will also increase because more reactions will take place (Pennak, 1989).

As temperature increase, more ATP is produced for the contraction of the heart muscles. Temperature facilitates enzymatic reaction which cause cell respiration, which produces ATP, ATP is what is used for energy in the body and what controls heart rate of Daphnia. As body temperature decreases, less ATP is produced through cellular respiration because they are fewer reactions and the reactions that are occurring slow down. This means the heart rate of Daphnia will also be lower, meaning less oxygen to the body. As the temperature increases, so do the enzymes reaction. This means an increased amount of ATP will be used. Therefore, more oxygen needed which leads to a greater production of carbon dioxide. This acts on the hearts rate to increase delivery (Pennak, 1989).

As the temperature increase, so did heart rate increase, when the temperature was 40C, the average heart rate of Daphnia was 152.4 beats per minute and when the temperature was 200C, the heartbeat of Daphnia was 224.0 beats per minute. And when the temperature was 300C, the heart rate of Daphnia was 250.4 beats per minute. This indicates that the heart rate of Daphnia increase with increase in temperature. Which means that their internal temperature is influenced by their external environment and they do not thermoregulate like mammal. They are, thermoconformers with little control over their body temperature. Therefore, as the temperature of the environment increases, the metabolism of Daphnia will increase as well because chemical reactions occur faster at higher temperature. This means that the heart rate will speed up in order to provide oxygen to the cells as metabolism increases. However, when the external environment reaches certain temperature (around 400C), enzymes break down and chemical reactions can no longer occur, so metabolism stops and Daphnia dies (Campbell, 2002).


The knowledge of plankton species composition and distribution to time and space are of great value especially in running water system. The present study reveals some aspect of zooplanktonic dynamic to explain their relation with the physicochemical parameters of river water and industrial area of Rima.fluctuation of abiotic factors i.e., concentration of dissolved oxygen, temperature, total alkalinity, total nitrogen, phosphate and p.H can influence the growth of zooplankton. The predominant cladocera over others have been reported earlier.

Temperature is one of the essential and changeable environmental factors, since it influence the growth and distribution of flora and fauna. Water temperature ranging between 13.50C and 320C is reported to be suitable and development of the planktonic organisms (Kamat, 2000). From the above statement we can conclude that in the present study that the increase in number of zooplankton were in accordance with temperature of habitat. The study also show that zooplankton species survive in neutral condition. Thus the river is said to be euthophic as indicated by diversity of zooplankton. Anthropogenic input may cause the  slightly variation in physicochemical parameters, and anthropogenic activities may also have effects on these variations. The variation could be as a result of fertilizer, insecticides and pesticide applications at the catchment area by the farmers. While biotic and other factors were likely to have caused the observed spatial effects on distribution of zooplankton species. Therefore, conducting further research on this area is essential to measuring the diversity of zooplanktons.


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