design and implement of an online application for payment of school fees in Brilliance secondary school, Birnin Kebbi


PROJECT PROPORSAL :- design and implement of an online application for payment of school fees in Brilliance secondary school, Birnin .

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The rapid advancement of computers in our society has made our daily workloads easier and more accurate. With its vast development, we need to set ourselves in its change and go with its flow. It had changed the views of many people to shift or alter their way of doing their task from a manual system to a more detailed computerized system. Computer makes communication easier and faster. As a result of this, many manual system is being turned to computerized system which also include payment online. Online payment system refer to the various method by which individuals and companies doing business online, collect money from their customers in exchange for the good and services they provide. A number of different form of payment exist for online purchases and more are being developed all the time. After all, it is in the best interest of both consumers and merchants to make electronic commerce as a safe and easy as possible.”The low cost of entry has attracted hundreds of companies, large and small, to the level playing field of cyberspace”, Paul j. Dowling, Jr. noted in this book, Web Advertising and marketing. “On the internet, a small one-man operation can look as good or better than a large multinational corporation.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The main aim of this project is to design and implement an online application for payment of school fees in Brilliance secondary school, Birnin Kebbi. The application will be developed in response to the problems and shortcoming with the school existing manual system of payment. To achieve this aim, the project has the following objectives:
To develop an online system that will be accessible to every student’s parent/guardian, provided their computers or handset are connected to a network.
To develop a system that will provide a link between school management and selected bank.
To provide a system that will allow a selected school staff (administrator) to log in and see a number of students that already been paid by their respective parents at a given time.
To allow students’ parent/guardian to visit and see the commencement and deadline of payment without visiting the school.

WEB/ONLINE APPLICATIONS
A web application is a program that is accessible over a network such as the internet or intranet. The term may also mean a computer software application that is hosted in a browser-controlled environment or coded in a browser-supported language (such as JavaScript, combine with a browser-rendered mark up language like HTML) and reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable (Roger and David, 2006).
Web application have some outstanding advantages, making many applications to go online some of which include:
Network intensiveness. Every web application resides on a network and must serve the need of a diverse community of clients. The network will enable communication between client-based features web application.
Concurrency. A large number of users may access the web application at one time. In many cases, the patterns of usage among end user will very greatly. In some case , the actions of one user or one set of users may have an impact on the action of other users or  the information presented to other users.
Unpredictable load. The number of users of web applications may vary from day to day. The number of  home and business that are monitored will change slowly. But the web application must be capable of handling an indeterminate number of events simultaneously (e.g., burglar alarm, fire detection, carbon monoxide detection). On Monday, 10 events might be reported pre hour. On Tuesday, 100 events might be reported, and on Wednesday (after a region suffers a major power outage) thousand of events  may be reported per minute.
Performance. If a web application user must wait too long (for access, for server side processing for client-side formatting and display), he or she may decide to go elsewhere, performance is critical. If the web application respond too slowly to an event, litigation may result.

System Analysis is a process of collecting factual data; understand the process involved, identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestion for improve the system functioning. In other words, System Analysis is the first step to the design i.e. an outline of how to realize architecturally significant functionality of the system

EXISTING SYSTEM PROCEDURE
The current process of fees payment in Brilliance secondary school is conducted by school administrative section and a particular bank where school opened account. For a new intake student, the process begins with purchasing o form. After the form has been  filled with all necessary information, it will take back to the admission officer where he may require a parent/guardian to bring the student in his flesh to receive some sort of interviews. After interviews, if successful, the  student will be given an offer. Payment process begins after student admitted, Firstly, parent/guardian will collect a teller from school accountant and go to the bank and pay fees.

ANALYSIS OF INPUT
The input is the necessary information needed from each student. Firstly, before student should be admitted in to school his parent/guardian should purchase the form that will be filled with all required information about particular student. The information required includes student bio data (such as name, username, other names, state of origin, local govt., residential address, etc) and some information about student’s parent (such as phone number, office address, etc) which will be attached with student’s local govt. Indigene and birth certificate/declaration of age.

Outputs are the information that is produced in response to the processed data or inputisystem

SYTEM DESIGN
This is next step after system analysis and the first step toward producing software. The new system designed base on the user requirement and detailed analysis of the existing system.

SUMMARY
Software designing and web application engineering requires through investigation and study of the requirements and data in order to establish facts about the  operations of the system, it requires detailed planning for proper development, implementation and deployment of system. This project focuses on developing an online payment system.
The first step to realize the online payment system is by capturing the requirement. This was done understand the operation of the existing system and design to design solution that exist in the manual system. After the requirement capture, relevant literatures were reviewed. This was followed by the development of models development. When modelling is completed, the next step is the design stage. At this stage model are developed and implemented using program codes. The design stage is followed by testing of the program to ensure that it meets requirements. If the result of the testing is encouraging, then the online payment system is functional and complete. After this the next step is to train the users to work with the system so as to achieve organizational objectives.

REFERENCES
Loudon, K, and Loudon J. (2010). “Management Information System”: Managing the
digital Firm. Eleventh Edition (11th ed.) New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
John, R.L and Young, M.L, (2010) “The Internet for the Dummies”. Indiana: Widely
publishinginc.
Brooks, D.R., (2007). An introduction to HTML And Java Script” New Jersey:
Springer-Verlag Limited.
Stephens, K, (2006). “Teach Your Self MYSQL in 24 Hours” Second Edition. Florida


Complete Project


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The rapid advancement of computers in our society has made our daily workloads easier and more accurate. With its vast development, we need to set ourselves in its change and go with its flow. It had changed the views of many people to shift or alter their way of doing their task from a manual system to a more detailed computerized system. Computer makes communication easier and faster. As a result of this, many manual system is being turned to computerized system which also include payment online. Online payment system refer to the various method by which individuals and companies doing business online, collect money from their customers in exchange for the good and services they provide. A number of different form of payment exist for online purchases and more are being developed all the time. After all, it is in the best interest of both consumers and merchants to make electronic commerce as a safe and easy as possible.”The low cost of entry has attracted hundreds of companies, large and small, to the level playing field of cyberspace”, Paul j. Dowling, Jr. noted in this book, Web Advertising and marketing. “On the internet, a small one-man operation can look as good or better than a large multinational corporation. But whether it is an individual working out of a virtual office, or a COE sitting in an expansive downtown office building, they are going online for one purpose-to sell. And they are leaving no stone unturned in their efforts to make it safe and easy for their customer to buy”. Customer who physically visit retail establishment can choose among a variety of payment method, including cash, checks, credit cards and debit cards. Customers who shop on the internet are beginning to expert online merchants to offer the same variety and convenience in payment term. Credit cards remain the most common from of payment term. Credit cards remain the most common form of payment for online purchases, although the option have expanded to include digital cash, smart cards electronic checks and other technologies like designed interface etc. In addition, some customers continue to make online purchases using traditional payment method such as placing  order by telephone or fax, or sending a check via snail mail. Dowling recommends that companies conducting sales online make as many payment method available as possible and advertise their acceptable of those method on their web site. He claims that small business can add value to their product or service offerings by making payment easy, comfortable and secure for their customer. “Getting paid on the web ultimately testifies to your marketing plans effectiveness”. Dowling wrote. “And when everything goes as it should, customer will place the order”.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The current processes of manual’ school fees payment usually done by student’ parent/guardian is surrounded by a number of identified problems both from the school management and student’ parent /guardian. Sometimes, because payment records stored not electronically may lead to missing or misplacement of payment records. Hence, the need of vibrant system  which will manage all the payment process effectively and make it easy to retrieve any sort of information whenever this need occurs, and also a system that can store the records securely and permanently. Online school fees payment is a research work that will help build an effective information management system for Brilliance secondary school birnin kebbi. This project is on attempt to design software that will serve as a more reliable and effective means of paying school fees and remove all form of delay and stress that is involved in the manual system of school fees process.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The main aim of this project is to design and implement an online application for payment of school fees in Brilliance secondary school, Birnin Kebbi. The application will be developed in response to the problems and shortcoming with the school existing manual system of payment. To achieve this aim, the project has the following objectives:
To develop an online system that will be accessible to every student’s parent/guardian, provided their computers or handset are connected to a network.
To develop a system that will provide a link between school management and selected bank.
To provide a system that will allow a selected school staff (administrator) to log in and see a number of students that already been paid by their respective parents at a given time.
To allow students’ parent/guardian to visit and see the commencement and deadline of payment without visiting the school.
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This research project will be designed and implemented in the Brilliance  Secondary School Birnin Kebbi to replace the manual traditional system of school fees payment currently used by both school staffs  and student’ parent/guardian.
  Due to time constraint and cost, the system will not be designed in a way that the payment could be handled by financial institute; rather it will be built by design an interface which will be implemented in the school and in a selected bank as well.















CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 WEB/ONLINE APPLICATIONS
A web application is a program that is accessible over a network such as the internet or intranet. The term may also mean a computer software application that is hosted in a browser-controlled environment or coded in a browser-supported language (such as JavaScript, combine with a browser-rendered mark up language like HTML) and reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable (Roger and David, 2006).
Design for web application encompasses the technical and nontechnical activities which include: establishing the look and feel for web  application, creating the aesthetic layout of the user interface, defining the  overall architectural structure, developing the content and functionality that reside within the architecture, and planning the navigation that occurs within the web application. (Pressman, 2010).
Web applications are popular due to the ubiquity of web browsers, and the convenience of using a web browser as a client, sometimes called a thin client. The ability to update and maintain web application without distributing and installing software on potentially thousands of client computer is a key reason for their popularity, as is the inherent support for cross-platform compatibility. Common web application include web mail, online retail sales, online auctions, and many other function.
Web application have some outstanding advantages, making many applications to go online some of which include:
Network intensiveness. Every web application resides on a network and must serve the need of a diverse community of clients. The network will enable communication between client-based features web application.
Concurrency. A large number of users may access the web application at one time. In many cases, the patterns of usage among end user will very greatly. In some case , the actions of one user or one set of users may have an impact on the action of other users or  the information presented to other users.
Unpredictable load. The number of users of web applications may vary from day to day. The number of  home and business that are monitored will change slowly. But the web application must be capable of handling an indeterminate number of events simultaneously (e.g., burglar alarm, fire detection, carbon monoxide detection). On Monday, 10 events might be reported pre hour. On Tuesday, 100 events might be reported, and on Wednesday (after a region suffers a major power outage) thousand of events  may be reported per minute.
Performance. If a web application user must wait too long (for access, for server side processing for client-side formatting and display), he or she may decide to go elsewhere, performance is critical. If the web application respond too slowly to an event, litigation may result.
Availability. Although an expectation of 100 percent availability is unreasonable, user of popular web application often demand access on a “24/7/365” basis. The web application must be designed to achieve this ideal (or something every close to it). (Roger and David, 2009).
2.2 REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT TECHNOLOGIES
By the turn of the century, information, including access to the internet, will be the basic for personal economic and political advancement. The popular name for the internet is the information superhighway. To find the latest financial news, browser through library catalogs, exchange information with colleagues, or join in a lively political debate, the internet is the tool that will take you beyond telephone, fax, and isolated computers to a burgeoning networked information frontier. The internet supplements the traditional tools you use to gather information, Data Graphics, News and correspond with other people. Used skilfully, the internet shrinks the world and brings information, expertise, and knowledge on nearly every subject imaginable straight to your computer. (Wellman and Caroline, 2002).
According to Janet Abbate in this book “inventing the internet”, the internet in its infancy stage started in the fall of 1960’s with the development of computers, originally conceived by the  US Department of Defense as a way to protect government communication systems in the event of a military strike, through an agency, the Advanced Research Projects Agency. This began with point-to-point communication between mainframe computers and terminal, expanded to point-to-point connections between computers and then early research into packet switching networks such as ARPA net. The original network, dubbed ARPA net (for the Advanced Research project Agency that developed it) evolved into a communication channel among contractor, military personnel, and university researchers who where contributing to ARPA project. The new network called the ARPANET ran on especial protocol scheme know as the network control protocol (NPC). NPC was extremely slow, permitting only one data packet at a time to be transferred between the hosts. By 1970 several defence  department agencies and universities were connected to it. The network employed a set of standard protocols to create an effective way for these people to communicate and share data with each other. During this decade (1970) Victor Serf of the Stanford University and Robert Kahn of the ARPA developed an improved protocol that was later called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), and in 1983 all AEPANET users were mandated to accept TCP/IP.
In 1986 a new phase in the internet history began when the National Supercomputing Foundation (NSF). NSFNET set to link five of its supercomputing centers: Von Neumann center in a new Jersey, the Cornell theory center, the pittsburg center, university of lllinois center for supercomputing applications and San Diego supercomputing centers respectively. The NSF net which ran TCP/IP over 56kbs soon connected to the ARPA net creating what would now be called the internet.
NSF net continued to grow throughout the 1990’s. This growth is a result of development of hypertext authoring system, the hypertext makeup language (HTML) in 1991, and addition to the TCP/IP protocol suite, the HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) which could distribute HTML encoded documents.
The invention of Tim Berners-lee at CERN the European particle physic laboratory at Geneva the new system enables files with text and graphics to be linked to other HTML encoded files anywhere in the world. Documents on the WWW include text, but they may also include still images, video, and audio for a every exciting presentation. People who create WWW documents often include a photograph of themselves along with detailed profession information and personal interest. (This is often called a person’s home page).

2.1.1 HYPERTEXT MAKEUP LANGUAGE (HTML)
Hypertext Makeup Language is a language developed by Tim Berners-lee which supports the web. HTML is not a programming language, in the traditional sense, but rather a set of instructions about how to display content i.e. makeup language (Books, 2007). A make-up language is a modern system for annotating a text in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from that text. The idea and terminology evolved form the “marking up” of manuscript, i.e. the revision instruction by editors. A makeup language is a set of makeup tags which HTML uses to describe web pages. Makeup  is typically omitted from the version of the text which is displayed for end-user consumption. Hyper links pieces of information (text, graphics, audio or video) in separate html files that have been developed with the aim that all manner of devices should be able to use the information on the web. After writing the codes, the file is stored as filename html and is opened using any web browser. The computer application that translates this description is called a web browser. Identically, online content should always look the same regardless of the browser used or the operating system on which it resides, but the goal of platform independence is achieved of approximately in practice. A basic HTML document requires a minimum of four sets of elements: html, head , title and body (Books, 2007).
Some of the Features of  HTML Include:
Although HTML document are a way to distribute information for remote access on the web, they are equally useful when used locally on any computer that has a browser. Thus, in conjunction with JavaScript, you can create a self-contained problem solving environment that can be useful locally as well as (literally).
Good programming technique often involves separating the input/output interface from the underlying calculations that do the work of a program, using appropriate modularization. The programming environment provided by HTML/JavaScript provides a conceptually elegant means of implementing this strategy. An HTML document provides the I/O interface and JavaScript handles the calculations. An advantage of HTML is that it provides a wealth of interface possibilities that far surpass those of text-based language such as C.
HTML displays a running text on the web page, a feature called a marquee behaviour. A text of desired message can be made to show using different format i.e. style. It can either runs from one end to another or hit the page boundaries.
Using HTML, pages can linked together to form a continuous interactive session. A highlighted word or phrase in one document acts as a pointer to another document that amplifiers or relates to the first document. This feature gives the web side a meaning, as it navigates the user of the site to every corner of the web site.
2.1.2. JAVASCRIPT
In the beginning  was HTML, and all was well, and its capability to include text and graphics of different sizes within the same document was quite compelling. As time passed however, pages become increasingly sophisticated, so the two major web browser companies: Netscape and Microsoft, each began to develop a scripting language for use on web pages, a language that would allow programs to be run on the visitors’ system as they viewed the page. For Microsoft, it was Visual Basic Script, the same scripting language found in the Microsoft Office Suite, among others. For Netscape, it was a scripting language that looked vaguely like the popular new Java object-oriented language. Netscape won, Microsoft lost, and JavaScript is the Web’s defacto scripting language (Taylor,2004).
JavaScript is an interpreted object-oriented programming language (script executes without preliminary compilation), with roots in C/C++, that has been developed for use with other Web tools. It does not operate as a standalone language, but rather is designed to work together with HTML for creating interactive web pages. JavaScript is not the same as Java, which is a compiled objected-oriented language (Books, 2007). In short JavaScript is entirely different from java in both concept and design; they are only related through similar syntax. JavaScript is inserted directly into a HTML pages in order to extend the capabilities of the web applications to provide user interactivity (Zakas 2006). JavaScript is the most popular scripting language on the internet, and works in all major browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Chrome, etc. A JavaScript is scripting language. A scripting language is lightweight programming language.
Some of the Features of JavaScript Are:
JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool – HTML authors are normally not programmers, but JavaScript is a scripting language  with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small portion of code into their HTML pages.
JavaScript can react to events – A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens, Like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element. Thus gives more flexibility.
JavaScript can read and write HTML elements – A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element.
JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. This serves the server from extra processing. This particular function will be extensive utilized throughout this project.
JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor’s browser – A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor’s browser, and depending on the browser, load another page specifically designed for that browser./
JavaScript can be used to create cookies - A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor’s computer.
Much more interesting than variable assignment (JavaScript instructions that assign a value to a specified variable) are expression, which are the real building blocks of JavaScript. Expressive can evaluate to a Boolean (as in “if this condition is true, then....”) or can evaluate to a string or numeric expression.
Looping mechanisms. Although writing program without any sort of looping or conditional execution is theoretically possible, doing so is complete nightmare, requiring you to type and type and type consuming much of our time. Instead, JavaScript offers a typical line up of looping and control structures. By utilized these structures, you can have sections of JavaScript that only run if certain condition is true or if variables have specified values. You can also execute statement more than once, based on similar conditions.
2.2.3 HYPERTEXT PREPROCESSOR (PHP)
PHP stand for Hyper Preprocessor, a scripting language designed specifically for use on the web. In its early development by a man named Rasmus Lerdorf, it was called personal homepage tools. When it developed into a full-blown language, the name was changed to Hypertext processor, more in line with its expanded functionality. (Janet, 2007). PHP was developed as a project of the Apache Software.
Foundation, thus, it works best with Apache, but also works with Microsoft IIS/PWS, iplanet (formerly Netscape Enterprise Servers ). It is also compatible with all web servers used today: WAMP, LAMP, IIS and others. Hypertext preprocessor is a general purpose scripting language (sever side) that, in addition to HTML and JavaScript, used in developing web application. PHP script are computer files containing instructions in the PHP language that tells the computer to do things, such as display hello on the screen or store some specified data in a database used and are used for web application which produces HTML document output. When PHP statement are executed, only the output is sent by the web server to the web browser i.e. codes are not include in the output sent to the browser, so the PHP code is secure and transparent to the user. PHPfiles have extension “.php”. PHP is only server-side, meaning it can’t interact directly with the user’s computer. That means PHP can’t initiate actions based on the status of  the user’s computer, such as mouse actions or screen size. Therefore PHP alone can’t produce some popular effects, such as navigation menu that drop down or change colour. On the other hand JavaScript, a client-side scripting language. A PHP scripting block always start with <?php and end with ?>. A PHP scripting block can be placed anywhere in the document. On servers with shorthand support enabled you to start a scripting block with <? And end with ?>. For maximum compatibility, it is recommend to use the standard from (<?php) rather than the shorthand form.

Some of the Capability of PHP Include:
Interact with HTML forms: PHP can display an HTML form and process the information that the user type in.
Communicate with database: PHP can interact with database to store information from the user or retrieve information that is displayed to the user. PHP is particularly strong in its ability to interact with database. PHP supports pretty much every database. You tell PHP the name of the database and where it is, PHP handles the details. It connects to the database, passes your instructions to the database, and returns the database response to you.
Generate secure web pages: PHP allow the developer to create secure web pages that require users to enter a valid username and password before seeing the web page content (Jalade,2007).
2.2.4 DATABASE
Database and data base system have become a critical part of everyday life especially in this modern world where individuals and organizations handle vast amount of data. Real life activities that involve interaction with the database include: bank deposit or withdrawals of money, reservations, accessing computerized library catalog and of course all organization that render online services. In short, databases play a vital role in almost all areas where computers are used.
A database is collection of stored operational data or facts that implicit, meaning and can be used by an organization or an enterprise to guide their operations. It is also a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning. A random or an unorganized data cannot be referred to as database. A database is designed, built and populated with data for a specific purpose and intended for a group of users. The need to manage this vast amount of data and to quickly find information that is relevant to a given query pose a greater need for powerful and flexible data management system to manage these data effectively so that they do not become a waste or distraction rather than an organizational asset.
The database management system (DBMS) is a collection of programs that enable users to create and maintain database. The DBMS is hence a general purpose software system that facilitates the process of defining, constructing and manipulating databases for various applications. Defining database involves specifying the types, structures and constraints for the data to be stored in the database. Construction of database is the process of storing the data itself on some storage medium that is controlled by DBMS. Manipulating  the database includes such as functions as querying the database to retrieve specific data, updating the database to reflect changes to the data. The DBMS used for handling the data in this research work is MySQL.
MySQL is a fast, easy-to-use DBMS used on many web sites. Speed was the developers’ main focus from the beginning. In the interest of speed, they made the decision to offer fewer features than their major competitors (such as Oracle and Sybase) However, even though MyQSL is less full-feature than its commercial competitors, it has all the features needed by the majority of database developers. It is easier to install and use than its commercial competitors, and the difference in prise is strongly in MySQL’s favor.
MySQL is developed, marketed, and supported by MySQL AB, which is a Swedish company . (Janet, 2007).
MySQL is a popular DBMS with web developers, its speed and small size make it ideal for a web side. In addition to that the fact that it is open source, which means free, and  you have the foundation of its popularity.
Below are the reasons for it popularity:
It is fast. The main goal of the developers of MySQL was speed . Thus, the software was designed from the beginning with speed in mind as a target.
It is inexpensive. MySQL is free under the open source GPL license, and the fee for a commercial license is reasonable.
It is easy to use. You can build and interact with the MySQL database by using a few simple statement in the SQL language, which is the standard language for communicating  with the DBMS.
It can run on many operating system. MySQL run to many operating systems Windows, Linux, Mac OS, most varieties of UNIX (including Solaris and AIX) and others.
Technical support is widely available. A large base of users provides free support through mailing list. The MySQL developers also participate in the e-mail lists. You can also purchase technical support from MySQL AB for a small fee.
It is secure. MySQL flexibility allows some or all database privileges (such as the privilege to create a database or delete data) to specific users or groups of users. Passwords can be encrypted.
It supports large database. MySQL handles databases up to 50 million row or more. The default file size limit for a table is 4GB, but you can increase this (if your operating system can handle it) to a theoretical limit of 8 millions requiring a terabyte.
It is customizable. The open source GPL license allows programmers to modify the MySQL software to fit their own specific environments (Janet, 2007).















CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
System Analysis is a process of collecting factual data; understand the process involved, identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestion for improve the system functioning. In other words, System Analysis is the first step to the design i.e. an outline of how to realize architecturally significant functionality of the system .System Analysis is the internal view of the system to be designed and implemented (CMP404 lecture note, 2011). This involves studying the business processes,  gathering operational data, understand the information flow, finding out bottlenecks and evolving solutions for overcoming the weaknesses of the system so as to achieve the organizational goals. System Analysis also includes subdividing of complex process involving the entire system, identification of data store and manual processes, The major objectives of system analysis are to find answers for each business process, what is being done, how is it being done, who is doing it, when is he doing it, why is it being done and how can it be improved? It is more of a thinking process and involves the creative skills of the system analysis. It attempt to give birth to a new efficient system that satisfies the current needs of  the user and has scope for future growth within the organizational constraints. The result of this process is a logical system design. System Analysis is an iterative process that continues until a preferred and acceptable solution emerges.
System analysis usually has some combination of the following: identification and re-identification of objectives, constraints, and alternative courses of action, examination of the probable consequences of the alternatives in term of costs, benefits, and risks, presentation of the results in a comparatives framework so that the decision maker can make an informed choice from among the alternatives (Wasson, 2005). The part or aspect of system analysis that concentrates on finding out whether an intended  course of action violates any constraints is referred to as FEASIBILITY analysis. A system analysis in which the alternatives are ranked in terms of effectiveness for fixed cost or in terms of cost for equal effectiveness is referred to as COST-EFFECTIVENESS analysis COST-BENEFIT analysis is a study where for each alternative the time stream of costs and the time stream of benefits (both in monetary unit) to yield the present values. The comparison and  ranking are made in terms of net benefits (benefits minus cost) or the radio of benefits to costs. In risk-benefit analysis, cost is assigned to each risk so as to make possible a comparison of the discounted sum of these cost (and of  the  costs as well) with the discounted sum of benefits that are predicted to result from the decision. The risk considered are usually events whose probability of occurrence is slow, but whose adverse consequences would be important (e.g. event such as an earthquake or explosion) (Yang, 2010).
3.1. EXISTING SYSTEM PROCEDURE
The current process of fees payment in Brilliance secondary school is conducted by school administrative section and a particular bank where school opened account. For a new intake student, the process begins with purchasing o form. After the form has been  filled with all necessary information, it will take back to the admission officer where he may require a parent/guardian to bring the student in his flesh to receive some sort of interviews. After interviews, if successful, the  student will be given an offer. Payment process begins after student admitted, Firstly, parent/guardian will collect a teller from school accountant and go to the bank and pay fees. After payment processed at the bank, a banker prints a cash receipt for the parent which he takes back to the school accountant where the cash receipt will be converted into original school receipt and he (accountant) records the student name into payment record book. For the returning student procedure is almost the same with the new one with only exception of purchasing form and interviews.
3.1.1 ANALYSIS OF INPUT
The input is the necessary information needed from each student. Firstly, before student should be admitted in to school his parent/guardian should purchase the form that will be filled with all required information about particular student. The information required includes student bio data (such as name, username, other names, state of origin, local govt., residential address, etc) and some information about student’s parent (such as phone number, office address, etc) which will be attached with student’s local govt. Indigene and birth certificate/declaration of age. These mentioned required information will be used by school admission office for admission determination. After student has been admitted and offer is given to him, next is the payment of school fees which will be done through school accountant and a bank where the school has bank account. Firstly, in the process of payment, school accountant issues a teller to the applicant (which may be parent or guardian or student) with name of the bank on it and school’s account number and name. The parent or guardian will head to the bank and pay the fees there. At the bank, after payment been done by parent or guardian, bank cashier will issue a printed slip to the parent which he (the parent) will take back to the school accountant as evidence, then the school accountant will convert the printed slip into original school receipt and (the accountant) records the name of the student in the payment record book. From  the above process, we can easily sort out all the interested input which include the following:
Filled form (for new student).
Student’s local govt. Indigene (for new student).
Birth certificate/declaration of age (for new student).
Filled teller (to the bank cashier).
Printed slip (to the school accountant).
3.1.2 ANALYSIS OF OUTPUT
Outputs are the information that is produced in response to the processed data or input. In the above section (i.e. 3.1.1) the completed process has been explained. From the explanation the outputs to the process are:
Admission offer (for new student).
Printed slip (to the parent/guardian at the bank).
Original receipt (to the parent/guardian at the school).
3.3 SYTEM DESIGN
This is next step after system analysis and the first step toward producing software. The new system designed base on the user requirement and detailed analysis of the existing system. This is the phase of designing. It is the most crucial phase in the development of a system. The logical system design arrived at as a result of system analysis is converted into physical system design. Design is the creative process of transforming the problem into a solution (Lawrence, 2002). The point is, the needed solution to the problems identified must be accomplished by the design of the new system. To achieve this, users of the system and their respective interactions with the system must be spelt out. Human actors or potential users of the system are banker and school administrators. Other actor includes the database. In short an actor is anything outside the system that interacts and benefits from it. From them (actors) use cases can be identified. Use cases are various ways by which the system can be used. In the new system actors may slightly different from manual system in that the actors in the new system are:
School administrator (accountant).
Bank cashier.
Applicant (parent or guardian or even student).
3.3.1 USECASE MODELIG
A use case model describes the proposed functionality of a system. A use case represents a discrete unit of interaction between a user (human or machine) and the system. This interaction is single unit of meaningful work such as create account or view account details. Each use case describes the functionality te be built in the proposed system, which can include another use cases functionality or extend another use case with its own behaviour.
According to Booch, Rumbaugh and Jacobson, every interesting system interacts with human or automated actors that system for some purpose (CMP404 lecture note, 2013). A use case specifies the behaviour of a system or a part of a system and is a description of a set of sequences or actions including variants, that a system performs to yield an observable result of value to an actor.
Below is payment system’s use case diagram:




Fig. 3.2 Payment System Usecase Diagram
3.3.2. CLASS DIAGRAM
The class diagram is a static diagram. It represents the static view of an application. Class diagram is not only used for visualizing, describing and documenting different aspects of a system but also for constructing executable code of the software application.
The class diagram describes attributes and operations of a class and also the constraints imposed on the system. The class diagrams are widely used in the modelling of object oriented system because they are the only UML diagrams which can be mapped directly with oriented languages.
Below is payment system class diagram:

Fig. 3.4 Class Diagram.






CHAPTER FOUR: IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
4.1 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
In computer science, an implementation is a realization of a technical specification or algorithm as a program, software component, or other computer system trough programming and deployment. Many implementation may exist for a given specification or standard. For example web browsers contain implementations of World Wide Web. Consortium-recommended specification and software development tools contain implementations of programming language. Laudon (2010).
System implementations also refers to the process of ensuring that the system is operational and putting it into use. i.e. after the design is completed, it is then put out for usage. To make this happen, the system has to be verified and validated usually done through testing and evaluation.
User Perspective
Will the system deliver the information users need for their work?
How quickly can users access the data?
How easily can users retrieve the data?
How much clerical support will users need to enter data into the system?
How will the operation of the system fit into daily business schedule?
Designers Perspective
How much disc storage space will the master file consume?
How many lines of program code will it take to perform this function?
Now can we cut down on CPU runtime when we run the system?
What are the most efficient ways of storing this data?
What database management system should we use?
The three (3) programming language were used to implement the design of the new system viz: the HTML, JAVA SCRIPT, and PHP. The HTML was used to design the interface which the user interacts with the system, this consist of the button, textfields, textareas, menus, labels e.t.c. an advantage of HTML is that, it provides a wealth of interface possibilities that by far surpasses those of text-based language such as c. The programming environment provided by HTML/JAVA SCRIPT provide a conceptually elegant means of implementing this design. A HTML document provides the I/O interface and java script handle the calculation. JavaScript also implements the validation of user inputs as this research work involves collection of data forms.PHP is used to establish connection with the databases and interact with database store information from the user or retrieve information that is displayed to the user. PHP is particularly strong in its ability to interact with databases PHP support pretty much every database including my choosing database management system (DBMS) MySQL.
4.1.1. NEW SYSTEM PROCEDURE
The designed new payment system’s procedure in Brilliance School is slightly different with the manual one. In this new system, first step to pay school fees is to start with creating account (in the case of new intake student). After account creation, the system will automatically generate admission number for a student which will be used to log in to print an invoice. For a returning student, first step is to log in with his admission number. After printing invoice, a parent (or guardian or student) will then move to a bank where actually payment will be done. At the bank, banker will log in and view student’s invoice and approve it immediately after payment has been done. At the school, admin will log in and view a list of those that have paid as well as one for registered student.
4.1.2. NEW SYSTEM INPUT
New system inputs are:
Student’s bio data
Student’s Local Govt. Indigene
Student’s primary certificate
Student’s birth certificate/declaration of age
Admission number
Password (for banker and admin)


4.1.3. NEW SYSTEM OUTPUT
New system outputs are:
Generated admission number
Invoice
Payment list
Registered student list
4.1.4. TESTING
Testing is about demonstrating the presence, not the absence of program faults. System testing is the technique employed in ensuring that the designed system has actually met the desired specification. It is also a method of ensuring that the system is built right or the right system is built. System testing of software or hardware is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirements. System testing falls within the scope of back box testing, and as such, should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic.
As a rule, system testing takes, as it input, all the integrated software components that have successfully passed integration testing and also the software system its self integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). The purpose of integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together (called assemblage) or between any of the assemblages and the hardware. System testing is a more limited type of testing, it seeks to detect defects both within the inter assemblages, and also within the system as a whole.
There are various ways to achieve this. Some of the ways includes:
Usability testing: ability to use the system easily and effectively.
Module/unit testing: this is testing the individual module. In this case the individual interface. In object oriented design classes.
Integration testing: marking sure that all parts work together.
System testing: this is to verify that the system meets its given specification/requirements.
Performance testing: it is done at all level and testing satisfaction with the system performance.
Stress testing: testing under loads than usual one expected.




















CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY
Software designing and web application engineering requires through investigation and study of the requirements and data in order to establish facts about the  operations of the system, it requires detailed planning for proper development, implementation and deployment of system. This project focuses on developing an online payment system.
The first step to realize the online payment system is by capturing the requirement. This was done understand the operation of the existing system and design to design solution that exist in the manual system. After the requirement capture, relevant literatures were reviewed. This was followed by the development of models development. When modelling is completed, the next step is the design stage. At this stage model are developed and implemented using program codes. The design stage is followed by testing of the program to ensure that it meets requirements. If the result of the testing is encouraging, then the online payment system is functional and complete. After this the next step is to train the users to work with the system so as to achieve organizational objectives.
5.2. CONCLUSION
In conclusion the system based on design will address all the problems identified in the statement of the problem in the chapter one, connected by the manual system.
5.3. RECOMMENDATION
Recommendation: To achieve effectiveness and operational efficiency of the new system, the following should be followed.
A workshop should be conducted to train the staff of the school on how best to use the system.
This system is online system; therefore a reliable internet connection should be maintained.

REFERENCES
Loudon, K, and Loudon J. (2010). “Management Information System”: Managing the
digital Firm. Eleventh Edition (11th ed.) New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
John, R.L and Young, M.L, (2010) “The Internet for the Dummies”. Indiana: Widely
publishinginc.
Brooks, D.R., (2007). An introduction to HTML And Java Script” New Jersey:
Springer-Verlag Limited.
Stephens, K, (2006). “Teach Your Self MYSQL in 24 Hours” Second Edition. Florida
Macmilian Computer Publishers.
Pressman, R., (2010) “Software Engineering” A practitioner’s Approach” Seventh
Edition: New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wasson, S.C, (2005). “System Analysis, Design, and Development: Concepts,
Principle and Practice.
Sommerville, I (2006). “Software Engineering “Eight edition. China: China Machine
Press .Caroline, A, and Wellman, B,(2002). “Internet in Everyday Life “Blackwell Publishers.
Valade, J., (2007) “PHP for Dummies. Third Edition: Widely Pub. Inc.
Tailor, D., (2004). “Creating Cool Web Site with HTML, XHTML and CSS”: Wiley
Publishing inc.
Healthcote, H.U., (2002). “The Internet Right Form the Start”. MWL Print Group.
Abbate, J. (2000). “Inventing The Internet”. Panama: MK Books.
Zacas, N.C.,(2006). “Professional Java Script For Web Developers”. IDG Books.

Appendix A screen shoot

Home Page

Admin login

Generated invoice

 Payment recite

List of payment record


Student registration

Appendix B Source Code
<DOCTYPE!.....>
<?php include("header.php");
include("student_menu.php");
 ?>
 <html>
 <head>
 <link type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' href='css.css' />
<link href='image/csc2.jpg' rel='shortcut icon' type='image/ico'/>
<script>
function validateform()
{
var a=document.forms["login"]["username"].value;
var b=document.forms["login"]["password"].value;
if ((a==null || a=="") && (b==null || b=="") )
  {
  alert("PASSWORD AND USERNAME ARE MISSING");
  return false;
  }
if (a==null || a=="")
  {
  alert("USER NAME IS MISSING");
  return false;
  }
if (b==null || b=="")
  {
  alert("PASSWORD IS MISSING");
  return false;
  }
}
</script>
 </head>
 <body>
 <table height='60%' class='mt' align='center' width='85%'frame='box' border="6">
 <tr>
 <td width='33%' height='300'>
<table class='frm' align='center' width="50%" cellpadding='3' frame="box" height='310' bgcolor="#ffffff">
<form  name='login' method='post' action='aloginpro.php' cellpadding='10' onsubmit='validateform();'>
<tr>
<td align='center'><h2 align='center'>ADMIN LOGIN</h2>
 </td>
</tr>
 <tr>
<td align='center'>Enter Username </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align='center'><input type='text' placeholder="Username" name='username'> </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align='center'>Enter Password: </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align='center'><input type='password' placeholder="password" name='password'> </td>
  </tr>
  <tr align='center'>
<td><input type='reset' value='CLEAR'> &nbsp;&nbsp;
<input type='submit' value='LOGIN'> </td>
</tr>
  </form>
 </table>
 </td>
 </tr>
 </table>
 <body>
 </html>
  <?php
 include("footer.php"); ?>

Admin.

<DOCTYPE!.....>
 <?php include("header.php");
include("student_menu.php");
 ?>
 <html>
 <head>
 <link type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' href='css.css' />
<link href='image/csc2.jpg' rel='shortcut icon' type='image/ico'/>
<script>
function validateform()
{
var a=document.forms["login"]["username"].value;
var b=document.forms["login"]["password"].value;
if ((a==null || a=="") && (b==null || b=="") )
  {
  alert("PASSWORD AND USERNAME ARE MISSING");
  return false;
  }
if (a==null || a=="")
  {
  alert("USER NAME IS MISSING");
  return false;
  }
if (b==null || b=="")
  {
  alert("PASSWORD IS MISSING");
  return false;
  }
}
</script>

 </head>
 <body>
  <table height='60%' border="5" class='mt' align='center' width='85%'frame='box'>
 <tr>
 <td>
<table class="frm" width="100%" height='350' border="5">
<tr>
<td bgcolor="#007000"> NEWS</td>
</tr>
 <?php
include("connection.php");
mysql_select_db("secondry_payment",$con);
$result = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM news");
while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result))
{
$title=$row["title"];
$body=$row["body"];
?>
<tr>
<td bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<?php echo $body; ?>
</td>
</tr>
<?php }?>
<tr bgcolor="#008000"> <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;</td></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ffffff"> <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;</td></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#008000"> <td> &nbsp;&nbsp;</td></tr>
</table>
 </td>
 <td align='center'width='530' ><img src='image/student.jpg' width='450'class="img" border="10" height='350' class="flt1 rp_topcornn" > </td>
 <td width='25%'  height='330' style="text-align:justify;font-weight:bolder;color:#008000;">
<table frame='box' class="mt" width="100%" height="95%" align="center" style="text-align:justify;font-weight:bolder;border-width:5px;border-color:#000000;" bgcolor='#00aa55'>
<form  name='login' method='post' action='invoice_pro.php' cellpadding='10' onsubmit='validateform();'>
<tr>
<td align='center'><h4 align='center'>Generate Invoices </h4>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align='center'><input type='text'placeholder="Enter Reg. No"  name='reg_no'> </td>
</tr>

  <tr>
  <td><td>
  </tr>
  <tr align='center'>
<td><input type='reset' value='CLEAR'> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
<input type='submit' value='LOGIN'> </td>
</tr>
  </form>
 </table>
 </td>
  <td>
 </tr>
 </table>
 <body>
 </html>
<?php
 include("footer.php"); ?>

index
<DOCTYPE!.....>
<html>
<head>
<link href='image/csc2.jpg' rel='shortcut icon' type='image/ico'/>
<link type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' href='css.css' />
</head>
<body>
<table class='menu' border='5' align='center' width='85%' height="10%" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
<tr>
<td class='' align=''><a href="index.php" style="text-decoration:none;"><span class="mitem" style="text-decoration:none;">Home</span></a> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="payment.php" style="text-decoration:none;"><span class="mitem">Payment</span></a>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="logout.php" style="text-decoration:none;"><span class="mitem" style="text-decoration:none;">Log Out</span></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="admin.php" style="text-decoration:none;"><span class="mitem">Admin</span></a>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
Student menu

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